Yakut knife - the national heritage of the Sakha people on an equal basis with mammoths, diamonds and khomus. Traditional Yakut knife byhah whose design has not changed much over the centuries, widely used today in all spheres of economic activity of the people. It is focused around the convenience of long and laborious work, and simply created to separate the meat from the bone rasp frozen fish, mend broken sledges.
Blacksmiths Alexander Danilov and Alexander Protopopov agreed to show and tell, how is this legendary thing.
With masters I met at an exhibition of achievements of professional skill of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) "Pros Expo-2015" in Yakutsk
Nerezi few hours, we have already started the process of manufacture.
Alexander Danilov was interested in knives since childhood. At first he began to cut the tree, and then carried away yuvelirkoy that later turned into a job. Blades began to try to do just for yourself. I bought blades for planers and gave them the knife form. Then he began to forge.
Alexander Yakut manufactures knives for twenty years, eight of them dedicated to the revival of traditional syrorudnoy melting. Aleksandr Danilov Smith demonstrates Critz made in the traditional way of the iron ore used to make Yakut knives in his workshop.
Since ancient times, the Yakuts have developed the extraction and processing of iron ore, as well as the art of smithing. And according to the testimony of Russian Cossacks in the XVII century to enter into conflict with the Yakuts, the quality of iron produced from ore Yakut blacksmiths, not inferior to the best foreign models.
For the manufacture of the Yakut knife smiths used alloy tool steel of various grades.
Exclusive knives are made from the ore.
Even in ancient times people gathered valuable ore along the rivers and make it a weapon.
Preparation of such ore is very time consuming. It needs to be burned, to enrich, to split up, and then only to smelt metal. 20 kg. ore usually leaves 10-11 required metal.
Coal is also necessary to procure their own. It is much cheaper blacksmiths.
Typically, for manufacturing a blade takes 2-3 days.
Knives can be gift and workers. Basically take the workers - they are used in the kitchen, hunting, fishing, and in the home. Gift made to order, usually decorated with engravings and other decorative elements.
Alexander continues to equate the blade. The first feature - the asymmetry of the profile of the blade. He sharpened only on the left side (if you hold the handle toward you), unlike other blades with asymmetrical profile, in which, as a rule, sharpening is done by hand labor, t. E. On the right side of the blade. Sharpened blade side Yakut knife slightly convex.
These characteristics have an explanation. Yakutia the main material for processing - this tree. Convexity on the blade facilitates the removal of chips, giving the right effort, master accurately and easily adjust the depth of planing. This knife is transformed into a kind of high-precision multi-planer. Moreover, simplified cutting of meat or fish (including frozen), as well as cutting of animal carcases, removal from animal skins and its manufacture. This significantly simplifies the process of sharpening tools.
Next, the blank into the hands of another masteru- Alexander Protopopov
He grinds and zatachivat workpiece.
In this machine the workpiece is already taking shape traditional knife. Tochitsya Yakut knife with one hand, on the other hand only removed the burr. It is easy to grind materials at hand, such as river pebbles.
The right side of a blunt blade is equipped with a fuller, which is called the Yakuts Jos. This is another feature of the Yakut knife. According to one of the exotic versions of this detail is present from the time when the knife wholly made of sawn along the bone, and Jos - not that other, as a channel of the bone marrow.
The flat side of a blunt blade to the right is called byhah haptahaya. This face has a special role: it makes the blade-section close to the quadrangular shape. This reinforces the effect of the breakdown, for example, to pierce the thick skin (for example, tailoring) or drilling shallow holes.
Alexander Protopopov 30 years working excavator, 45 went on to retire and has since started to make knives. First it was a hobby, then work.
- "I still have a teacher -. Vinokourov Semyon Vasilyevich I show him my work I think that people have a lifetime to learn." - Says Smith.
Masters also are made of Damascus steel knives. This process so complicated that pass it a couple of sentences will not work.
- "The oil is cooled and hardened in the furnace oil can be heated to harden it Okay, carbon steel quenched at 780-1000 degrees, the oil turns at such temperature.V oil cooled, it provides rapid and uniform cooling, which is.. carbon steel is important that it is not cracked quenched. " - Says technologist
Yakut knife handle working traditionally carved from a single piece of birch burl - very strong wood with a rich texture. It is flat, devoid of any stops and long enough. With a long handle is more convenient to work in the cold wearing gloves, and expense of an elongated arm rises rubkost knife. In the section of the handle resembles an egg. This form is chosen so that when some works not turned the knife in his hand. An interesting way of mounting the blade to the handle. First is done a wide central hole and tapered shank is driven into the handle. Then, on the sides of the blade inserted wedges-Chopik softwood. They are bursting, and they clamp the blade into the handle. In order to protect from moisture wooden handle, it is impregnated with special oils.
Sheath from real Yakut knives are simple and functional. They are made of oxtail, shot stocking, and inserted in it a wooden insert. Knife in leather sheath recessed 1/3 stick and fixed there by friction. Blade freely hanging in a wooden liner inside the sheath.
It gives an opportunity to invest and to take out a knife with a blade, which freezes the blood and fat during the winter cutting game. By the way, you can extract the Yakut knife with one hand and pushing his thumb into the mouth of the scabbard. The scabbard worn on a belt, in a free suspension of the leather strap in position on an inclined to horizontal.
The blade knives Alexandra Danilova is branded with the image of an ancient drawing of an eagle.
Decorative elements on the table wizard.
Sheath trimmed with leather
The skin is made in the neighboring ulus
Now, the skin should be carefully glued and sewn
While it is possible to sharpen the knife itself
The handle is covered with stains
To quickly dried up :))
That sword of Damascus
And this is the exhibition of achievements of professional skill of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) "Pros Expo-2015" in Yakutsk
Prices knives blacksmith from 5 000 to 70 000 rubles. All depends on the materials and complexity of operation.
Yakut knife - is a simple and intuitive tool for working with wood, hides, skins, and of course, he has no equal when working with meat and cooking stroganina. Compare and mix it with nothing. In order to understand the beauty and convenience of the Yakut knife, you just need to take it in hand.
Author: Yuri Smityuk
Весь материал, представленный на сайте республика-саха-якутия.рф взят из открытых источников или прислан посетителями и авторами сайта. Материал используется исключительно в некоммерческих целях. Все права на публикуемые материалы принадлежат авторам. Если Вы являетесь автором материала или обладателем авторских прав на него и против его использования на сайте республика-саха-якутия.рф, пожалуйста, свяжитесь с нами через форму контактов.