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IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH


     Sketches of travel in the North-Eastern Siberia. EV Dinah Pfizenmaier; Translated from German by H. Neumann
    in 1902 by the river Berezovka, right tributary which flows into the Arctic Ocean Kolyma River, 320 kilometers to the northeast of Average - Kolymsk was found the corpse of a mammoth locals. Local residents who were on-site findings, reported that the dead body is very well preserved. The Academy of Sciences has decided to equip an expedition to survey and excavation of this new discovery. The head of the expedition was elected had previously traveled through Siberia entomologist DF Hertz. As an assistant he was given DN Sevastyanov and EV Dinah Pfizenmaier, sketches of which travel, we publish below.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Departure from Irkutsk

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Lensky tract

    From Irkutsk we went in the carriage. There were put mattresses, pillows and blankets. We had to go for three days, and we hope that all of these devices, along with soft and fresh straw will enable us to even a little sleep on the road. The carriage has the upper hand, are pretty good protection from the weather, and would have been tolerable "crew" for long-distance travel, if it had not had a big inconvenience:. Total absence of springs Body it rested on two thick totally flexible poles in front and behind these poles were. are attached to the axes of the wheels.

    In this way, greater stability is achieved, if necessary on the nasty road trip. The carriage was drawn by three horses, ringing their bells rattle. The carriage and cart for the luggage had been hired by us at 360 kilometers from Irkutsk to Chigalova, where we had to transfer to the ship. The horses we had to change at the stations that were from one another at a distance of 25-30 kilometers ... - Uh ... Uh ... Hey ... With God shouted the coachman, and clicked his tongue. The horses jerked and bounced carriage, and at this time we tried on more comfortable to lie down in our "box of torture." Quickly we raced through the streets of Irkutsk. Ruts followed each other in features and suburb, which we flew noisy gallop. The cart so badly to jump, that talk was impossible. An attempt to speak would cost the loss of several teeth or the tongue. Our driver, however, very little concerned that we, like rubber balls bouncing at every pothole. He, as if nothing had happened, bawling, whistles and gesticulating, urging their horses. How like us to have already spread out behind him now before us Buryat steppe! When we drove a few kilometers, the road is a little improved. On one of the hills could be seen roadside cross. The driver said that some travelers were robbed and killed in this place. These roadside crosses are passed from time to time reminded of the fact that you have to be alert all the time.

    The idea that we can erect crosses in the Buryat steppes, few of us tempted. Around spreads steppe, flat and monotonous. Only from time to time could see the narrow, drying at this time, the streams overgrown with bushes on the edges of the liquid. Nowhere, as far as the eye could see, there was no sign of any forests or separate trees. The only people we met at the beginning, there were two riders, who were traveling in the opposite direction. They were, judging by their Mongol type, local Buryats, pursuers in Irkutsk, to slaughter a herd of bulls. Above us only crows hovered yes kites. Distance from time to time could be seen guarded by mounted herdsmen herd of horses or sheep.

    The next morning, far beyond the hills, seemed bluish mountains. The driver confirmed that this chain of hills running from to. Kachug on the right bank of the upper reaches of the Lena River. By noon of the second day we got up at another narrow Kachug Lena. In this mountainous region the road was much better than in the desert, and we are now moving forward quickly. The driver drove his horses hard. Now we got up tree-covered hillsides. Forest, this consisted mainly of larch. But it often could be seen pine and birch. Occasionally there are also cedars (Pinus cembra). Cedars are very much appreciated in Siberia. Autumn pine cones enclosing the nuts are collected in a large quantity. For the Siberian pine nuts replace sunflowers European Russia. The wood of this beautiful tree also extremely valuable, and especially good for furniture and carvings.

    She did not crack or warp, as is the case with many other tree species. However, where cedar grows, it is due to the lack of means of transport, has almost no value. It is not uncommon that the collectors of nuts cut down cedars very best to not disturb yourself climbing the trees. Starting with. Kachug, Lena is now available for small ships, though only at high water. Waterways Siberian rivers are constantly changing, and Lena is no exception in this respect. On the ground, the former deep last year, this year you can stumble on a bank. In 1901, the ice on the Lena was an unusually early, in mid-April. The onset of dry weather soon quickly lowered the water level. This told us the level of the flood that came into distinct horizontal line along the entire coast. Line this one and a half meters towered over the smooth surface of the river. In Kachug told us that we will get the opportunity to transfer to the boat only to Chigalove, to which had to travel on horseback. In Verkholensk carriageway road goes directly on the right bank of the Lena. Red sandstone gives way as a good primer that travel in the carriage suddenly turned into a pleasure. It's amazing how a person gets used to everything! When we left Irkutsk, we do not believe that we will achieve with intact bones purpose of the trip, but now we hardly pay attention to small shocks, comfortably lying on our mattresses and very bad sleep. And yet we happily welcome which seemed far away on the high shore Chigalovskuyu church. Chigalovo - the village, based on the upper Lena not more than two hundred years ago, when the Russian peasants here pere¬selyalis of landowning areas.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Postal boat on the Lena

    Venerable kind headman told us the story of the emergence of this village. According to him, the Siberian village based exiles and their descendants. Until very recently, the village served as a settlement place for those who served their term of imprisonment in the penitentiary, and who did not receive the right to return to European Russia. Chigalovskie peasants lived in poverty. The streets were covered in mud, half-ruined house. Only in very few windows were whole glass. Window openings have been tightened in many homes especially sturgeon tanned skins. On the street, between pigs and stray dogs, kids were playing dirty. Bright was evident that this vast and rich country, artificially turned into a "rejected" the country has not seen a special care on the part of the tsarist government. Since we were now the two-day water trip, we bought ourselves in the only shop chigalovskoy bread and smoked fish. The landlord postal station has prepared us a rowboat.

    It covered aft were laid our mattresses and pillows. Quickly moved our luggage was in the boat, and after a few minutes we were in the middle of the river swept downstream.

    The boat on the Lena

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Boat on Lena river

    After three days of travel in the carriage jolting, we are doubly appreciated the positive aspects of a trip on the river. Our boat quickly and easily slid forward, and we ourselves, comfortably lying on the floor, watching the landscape continuously running. The boat was hired by us to all three hundred and sixty kilometers to s. Ust-Kut. Two rower and steering alternated on each of the seven piers. On both sides of the river ran continuously expanding the taiga. From a distance, it appeared that coniferous forest clean, but upon closer observation it could also be seen aspen, birch and alder. From here softwood most common larch, pine and then, occasionally, cedar. In the evening in front of us, in the middle of the river, it appeared the island. Tall slender cedar trees stood close to him near each other.

    In the west, the sun was setting behind the wood and gilded tops of the trees and the tops of the mountains to the east. Along the left, low-lying banks of the river were meadows, which could see the haystack - a sign that we will soon see human habitation. Indeed, at eight o'clock we arrived in Dubrovskaya, which replaced our rowers and a helmsman. The road from the river to the village, and here, as in Chigalove, passed on this "dung mountains" as manure from year to year were brought to shore. There he is, as long as the river does not take him away during floods. Although we went on only nine o'clock in the evening, the steering was not difficult to keep the right path, because at this time of year is almost does not darken. The sky was completely cloudless. in the south-east could see the waning crescent moon.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Upper Lena River

    On the other side, at the edge of the forest, you can see the silhouette of a lone light and moving around the person. Must be a hunter preparing their own food. These flashing lights in the night in the woods have some special attraction. At dawn, we could hardly get through to the sleeping stationmaster. Village dogs, excited by our appearance, made an infernal noise, but, nevertheless, the door post office, we did not open. Finally, there was a woman, and soon we were sitting at the samovar, with relish sipping hot tea. Around noon, we had met the boat, which dragged on Flail upstream of six dogs. At the helm was a man; another, walking along the shore, shouting and urging strikes knocked out of the animal forces. Heavily loaded boat was moving forward quite quickly and soon disappeared from our eyes.

     At one of the turns of the river, we noticed a shallow place and a large animal. Through binoculars I made out that it was a female moose. It was the first big game, we met during the trip. Seeing our boat, the animal disappeared quickly in the coastal bush. Except for a few grouses yes ducks, the elk was the only game, which we met for the time of travel for Lena. By noon the next day we arrived in Ust-Kut. When he heard that today in Yakutsk leaves belonging to the private shipping company steamer "Vitim", we immediately went to the marina. It was found that the seven-day trip on this ship will cost as much as would have cost the same trip on the highway. However, the expectation of a mail steamer would delay us for two days, and we decided to immediately move to "Vitim".

    On the "Vitim"

    Dining room "Vitim", bearing the proud name of "cabin" was so small that the sole of her desk barely could fit six people is well cooked dinner quickly made us forget about all the shortcomings of the ship:. Since we left Irkutsk, it was our first hot meal. If in the morning our captain was stingy on the words in the evening it really does could not be accused of being too silent. We soon found that it was a daily recurring phenomenon. Obviously, his stomach only in the evening was filled with necessary for good mood amount of vodka. The next morning, "Vitim" made a long stop at Machuryarenske village where Georgia bread to Yakutsk. before Machuryarenska on our way across the other small villages. Taiga was everywhere here uprooted and fertile, consisting mainly from na¬nosnoy land, the soil is plowed. in Lena sow, mainly, spring wheat, which has the best chance of aging in these areas, reaching up to 62 ° north latitude. We were told that the number of required here for sowing seeds is 100 kilograms per acre (1.1 hectare). The average per acre receive twelve hundred kilograms of the crop. In a particularly fruitful year revenue collection up to two thousand kilograms per acre.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    The ship on the Lena River

    The newly arriving settlers falls, first-thing, do uprooting taiga, as all free land is already allocated. The uprooting of forest work is so difficult that at Lena came only a very small number of settlers. Most remained in Central Siberia, mainly in the steppe region, where they have to exert less energy to produce the first harvest. During a walk through Machuryarensku we met an old man poor man. It was the old man has ninety-eight years old, exiled here for his political "unreliability" of his native Transcaucasia in the twenty-four year old. He has long stopped issuing monthly thirteen rubles laid by the tsarist government as exiles benefits. The term of his punishment long since expired, and he had the right to return home. But every time the local authorities offered him a free ride, he was letting him down, not wanting to leave the land where he spent in exile for so many years. We Machuryarenska river reaches a width of six meters. Lena doing here elongated bend. here it was easy see traces of a powerful flood that start at a time when the river is released from the ice cap. the individual slowly melting ice-floes were on the top of the coastal cliffs. at the bottom, near the water, they were closely piled up one beside the other, and could be seen as far as the eye could see. When squeezed banks ice blowin tearing down the river, these huge boulders thrown on the shore.

    Shortly before our departure from Machuryarenska appeared which went from Yakutsk mail steamer. Passengers on it was a lot. For the Siberian river steamer, he had a rather large size and has a capacity of not less than one hundred and twenty people. After two days of continuous path we reached Kirenska, friendly, beautifully located city of Irkutsk province, within which we still are. Here we saw the first time the Yakuts, two men and a woman. They were wide Mongolian face and small slanted eyes with typical so-called Mongolian folds. The next evening, the driver must have worked too hard extermination purchased in Kirensk vodka reserves, so as our boat at night suddenly became. - Parovik ill - thickly said driver. Not very sober captain explained to stop the fact that "the machine does not turn the screw as in the boiler, probably too much water." Of course, the reason for the delay was not an abundance of water in the boiler of the steamer, and vodka in abundance in the stomach "upra¬vlyayuschih "our ship. This opinion is apparently stuck steering. he did not participate in drinking bouts. Silently accept a defect fix it in the morning set in motion our old pot. on both sides of the river bank was once again completely covered with forest. East coast here throughout much higher the west. the first drew attention to this feature of the Siberian rivers Russian naturalist Ernst Baer, ​​who explained this phenomenon of the earth's rotation influence. the same differences in the heights of the eastern and western shores are observed and Indigirka and Colima, as we found out later. High southwest Beach, away which we are now passing, was badly pitted flood. streams and rivers flowing into the Lena, did himself a lot of deep routes. in those places, where these flows fell in Lena, were traces of large landslides. These annually changing coast is an endless source giving remains of fossil animals. Unfortunately, most of these residues are killed ... In the evening the ship reached the southern boundary of the Yakutsk region. Its forests and tundra stretches north to the shores of the Arctic Ocean, to the south and the north-east ridge to the raised bed. To the south of Olekminsk forest retreats far from the flat western coast. He was forced to give way to numerous settlements Yakuts are leading a sedentary lifestyle. This activity of the people is rapidly progressing culturally. They recently started agricultural activities assumed such proportions that the Yakuts Olekminsky District supply spring wheat is now densely populated gold mines in the Vitim. And before the mine received the bread from Central Siberia.

    In Yakutsk

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Suburbs Yakutsk

    In Yakutsk, we stopped at the only hotel in town, shabby and dirty, but its central location convenient for us. Extremely important was the question of our future provisions. On the way to Kolyma we had to travel hundreds of kilometers of almost completely uninhabited area. However, in the Yakut villages and landmark stations we could expect to get fresh meat. As for the bread, then this could be no question as to the north of Yakutsk bread is no longer grows. Lena is covered with ice for two hundred days a year. In Yakut bakers we ordered rye crackers. We assumed also buy Yakutsk we need horses. But on the advice of an experienced Cossack Ataman, we finally decided to use in the course of our journey of further State-owned horses. The journey from Yakutsk to Kolymsk equal three thousand kilometers. We had to do it on horseback. Six horses were required for three members of the expedition, we hired a translator and two loaned to us the Cossacks. Transportation of luggage, according to our calculations, demanded another fourteen. Therefore, forward was immediately sent to the Cossack, announces our arrival, all the way from the station staged Verkhoyansk Yakutsk to continue to Kolymsk. He passed landlords postal station orders to prepare us six saddle and pack horses fifteen. Also needed twenty, we consider it necessary to have another horse back.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Shopping malls in Yakutsk

    This advanced Cossack had to get ahead of us for a week, and we slowly finished fees. We stocked tea, sugar, salt, some of my canned. They bought stuff for the natives and for the exchange of gifts. Men are not intended Yakut knives, gunpowder, lead, pipe and tobacco. Women - tea, sugar, colored beads, colorful silk and needles. In the provincial treasury, we exchanged a few thousand gold and silver brand new. The natives did not accept paper money, but the kids were happy at the sight of shiny silver. In the nearly three-week stay in Yakutsk, we had quite a few attractions to explore it. Stone building in Yakutsk, except for warehouses, no. On both sides of the streets are not paved stretch small wooden houses. For walkers, there are wooden platforms. Throughout a large number of stray dogs and kites (Milvus ater). Nests in all more or less lofty buildings, hundreds of kites fly over the city and. together with dogs, destroy emitted residents dregs. The city spread wide as each Yakut house has an extensive yard, separated from the street by a fence with boards. For trips I used the services of the same cab, with whom befriended on the second day of my stay in Yakutsk. To my surprise, this cab driver was one of the colonists German of the Volga. He told me about all his misadventures, of how he had spent two years in prison and was then sent into exile in Siberia. With touching constancy waiting this morning my brother out of the hotel. He obviously great pleasure to talk to me in their own language. Among the Yakut building attracted attention Cossack fortress, built in 1621 -1623 years. In 1901, she was still there, but during the revolution was destroyed and its remnants were eating as fuel. The towers were built from its powerful trunks of larches. Having stood for nearly three hundred years, they were still very strong. It was built by the Cossacks, went down the Lena on rafts and submit Yakuts in the early seventeenth century. Near the hotel was a vast courtyard seating. Yakutsk, the central market of northern fur and fossil ivory.

    Yakut market, thanks to daylight time, was similar to the oriental bazaar, as local craftsmen worked here under the open sky. I bought a souvenir carved various trinkets made of mammoth tusks. There were boxes, combs, knives for cutting paper, cigarette holders and pipes. Here you can buy an original carpet of white and black horse hair, woven in the form of a chessboard. Remarkable its impermeability Yakut boots with soft soles made of horse skin. Yakuts call them "sari". Very nice silver and forged products Yakuts. From birch bark they make all kinds of vessels with very beautiful patterns. In short, the Yakuts - extremely capable people, having all the chances for further development. Yakut or soholary (people) as they call themselves, are mixed tyurkskomongolskoy nationality. Prior to the beginning of the fourteenth century, they inhabited the area, located to the east of Lake Baikal. Those who came from the east Mongol hordes pushed them north. In the southern part of the Yakuts are sedentary, more and more involved in agriculture. Just north of Olenek to Kolyma and up to the Arctic Ocean, they were semi-nomads. In the summer they migrate there from his solidly built winter yurts in the summer, usually located at some of the lake, where there is sufficient grazing for herds of deer, cattle and horse herds. In contrast to most of the natives of the North-eastern Siberia, the Yakuts are not extinct. Their number is continuously increasing, reaching in the present time of three hundred thousand people. They have a remarkable ability to assimilate other peoples. Not only other north-eastern Siberian tribes, but even Russian settlers often adopt their language, customs and unique culture. In Yakutsk museum I was able to get acquainted with the works of ancient Yakut culture. Collections of it are interesting specimens of native industries and local handicrafts. Of even greater interest was aroused in me the most valuable geological and paleontological exhibits the same museum. A week before our departure arrived in Yakutsk, Lord Clifford. He was able to hunt and kill the upper Lena magnificent elk. Lord again renewed its request - to let him go with the expedition. The head of our expedition, Hertz, refused on the ground that we ourselves barely enough horses to travel in Kolyma. The Englishman, however, was not satisfied and tried another way to reach your goal. The wife of Police received luxury gifts. Her husband had been promised eight hundred rubles for Yakutia poor. In this way, Clifford thought to ensure that he was given a horse before our departure from Yakutsk. We learned about it. Hertz pointed out the governor that if the Lord really be able to go ahead of us towards the Verkhoyansk, our transport threatened to stay on the road due to lack of horses. Therefore, the governor simply forbidden to go to Clifford Verkhoyansk, referring to the then government did injunction by which foreigners were strictly forbidden to visit the places of exile, located north of Yakutsk. His "lordship" had to abandon a trip to Verkhoyansk. Enraged, he went by boat from the nearest well to the lower Lena, where he engaged in the hunting of reindeer and wild sheep. We have agreed with the owner of a small merchant ship, it will take us to the station at Tandnnskoy Aldan River, and twentieth-June "Michael" weighed anchor.

    In the gorges, forests and swamps

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Aldan River. Yakutia

    For Yakutsk Lena reaches ten kilometers wide. The fairway runs between the numerous islands. Without a pilot it is very easy to stumble on a bank. Tandy Station is at a distance of one hundred and seventy-five kilometers above the confluence of the Aldan in Lena. A trip to the Tandy lasted two days. At this point, the width of the Aldan is eight kilometers. Fifteen kilometers above it has narrowed to three kilometers, while maintaining the width of more than over 600 kilometers. Like Lena it in its early forms numerous islands. Due annually changing melyam navigation on Aldan requires great care. Sitting on the bow of our ship sailor from time to time carefully measured the depth of the water. Despite this, the ship often tightly crashed into the sand. We were taken from the rocks, giving the reverse, and then tried to get around and get stranded on. The area, which we are now passing was extremely monotonous. We have long made their way between the flat, overgrown with willows, islands. Vegetation that bore the clear signs of the flood, apparently completely floodable their spring.

    Beach wear continuous virgin forest. According to the captain, in this area a lot of moose. During the stop, made for fuel gathering, we were convinced that this message does not exaggerated. On the shore, in large numbers, were seen old and new moose tracks. These were real paths, do the elk in the soft wet ground. In just a few kilometers from the station Tandina-tion, on the right bank of the Lena River, rises a mountain range in the two hundred meters of the height. In these places, the river suddenly narrows to three kilometers wide. The flow becomes faster. In the water are seen uprooted tree trunks - the work of mountain streams. Our steamer reminded awkward turtle struggling with raging water masses. The morning of June 22, we anchored near the station Tandy and immediately sent one of our Cossacks of horses. Horses were brought to shore unexpectedly quickly. I Came, bowing low, and the landlord himself the post office, the gray-haired Yakut. We learned from him the sad news. It turned out that our best Cossack for nine days waiting for the water to fall tukulans. small river, swollen from melting snow in the Verkhoyansk mountains. Finally, he decided to move to the path, and then something happened misfortune. Accompanied him, the driver drowned with his horse. At the same time he lost all mail for Verkhoyansk and Kolymsk. The bodies of both humans and horses were found. Wild mountain stream carried off his victims to Aldan. Navyuchivanie horses went on for quite a long time.

    It was necessary to distribute the load as evenly as possible. Finally, everything was ready. We jumped into the saddle and set off. Our caravan was moving forward in single file along the narrow road half a meter wide. Besides us, the members of the expedition, two Cossacks and interpreter with us had two good knowledge of the way the coachmen-Yakuts, is replaced with the horses at each station. Coachmen were traveling on the most lightly loaded horses. To explain to them that we can only with the help of the Cossacks and the interpreter, who knew but Yakut, and Tungus language yet. Already in the vicinity of Yakutsk have started to disturb mosquitoes. Now, in the swampy forests, they have caused us suffering now. And the riders, and the horses were shrouded swarms of mosquitoes. I had to cover their heads with a dense veil. Exhausted by his horse, I fanned long ponytail attached to a wooden handle. But the "winged taiga kavale¬riya" still contrived to find vulnerable places, and soon our faces and hands covered with blisters burning. Even familiar to these places coachmen wearing veils and leather gloves. From time to time I was cleaning his white horse from our tormentors. But after ten minutes it became gray again.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Yakut Guides

    Less than two hours from the moment we set off, the horse became quite pink. She painted the blood of dead mosquitoes on it and blood, speaking from their bites. At about midnight, we finally made a halt in the forest brook. At this time of year here, strictly speaking, does not happen overnight. Sun took only two hours ago. Stood bright twilight. From the gorges were going up the white mass of fog and slowly crept to the top of the ridge. In the east of the snowy crests of the mountain range has Alel day. Quickly we pitched the tent relatively dry area. On this day we passed per¬vye thirty-five kilometers. Soon, however, he had to give up all hope of sleep. Despite the fact that near the tent was divorced smoky fire, I was completely covered with countless small tormentors. Throwing a fight with them, I went out of the tent and sat down by the fire, along with his companions. They all sat at a large campfire, around which it was bred many more small ones. Because of rotten wood, moss and grass fires were given these little strong, acrid smoke. He, however, made the eyes water, but it was a lot easier to mosquito bites. Vegetation around us already sported a spring dress. Bright green birch and larch clearly stood out against the dark pines. On dewy meadow bloom already cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum), primrose and other messengers of spring. Willows by the creek wore their silvery leaves. In currants, which grows everywhere in the north up to the tree line, except for young leaves, flower buds were visible. Somewhere in the vicinity, in the thick bushes, singing their songs Siberian nightingale and cuckoo incessantly threw his lone call. The sun was already quite high, and around our camp became more animated. One after another, the bird sings. We drank tea and ate rye crackers. Cook, who is also a translator, roasted on the spit a piece of deer meat. Woe was only in the fact that every piece had to lift the grid, and the mosquitoes immediately swarmed around our necks, chins and cheeks. I soon learned from the coachmen to smoke and even drink tea without removing the head from the grid. Coachmen were on his own hired house, and ate salted fish and tea. They were purified from fish scales salted insufficiently clearly, and then it was cut longitudinally into two halves. The mouth was laid and exciting teeth one end of a half, the other end of the Yakut her tightly clutching his left hand. With a knife, he cut off his respective value of the pieces, and done it in the upward direction, almost touching the edge of the lips and the tip of the nose. Our horses are also grouped by the fire. Well aware of the protective properties of acrid smoke, they settled on the leeward side of the fire. We moved on through the gorges, through thick woods and swamps. The soil was heavily eroded by continuous rains, and sometimes horses sank up to their bellies. In such cases, we had to jump from the saddle, and to guide them in the matter.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Verkhoyanye. Yakutia

    In the course of the next two days we drove only thirty - thirty-five kilometers away, and this despite the fact. that is on the seat for eighteen hours a day! The twenty-fourth of June, we have achieved rapid tukulans. The eldest of the wire-Yakuts brought us to wade through the roaring mountain stream. We moved to the opposite side above the place where there was a recent misfortune. The wet, but unharmed, we continued on its way steeply uphill to the rising tukulans Valley. Luxury grass in some places reached the horse's belly, and then-and-dealing enticed them with its freshness and juiciness. Around, in sheltered mountain valley adorned with a variety of flowers. We found there are two kinds of lilies with white and bright red flowers, gentian, iris, one type of slipper (orchid) with beautiful purple flowers and many other luxurious flowering plants. On the mountain slopes towered mighty larch, cedar trees and some pines. The higher we were going up into the mountains, the forest became less and stunted trees. Larch barely reached the height of a man, and the ugly birches were absolutely dwarfs. Those and others were hiding in protected areas, and in the canyons between the rocks. After a steep ascent, leading their horses, we finally reached the mountain pass. Here, out of the blue, it was composed of fragments of rock pyramid about two meters high above. In the intervals between the various components of the pyramid stones sacrifices were invested. All of them were intended as a gift to dwell in these places, "the spirit of the mountain." We found here a pinch of tea and tobacco, fox, hare and squirrel skull, glass beads and arrowheads, copper and small silver coins. On either side of this kind of altar were driven into the ground stakes. They fluttered in the wind wolf skins, colorful pieces of tissue and bundles of horsehair. Our Yakut immediately pulled out a small amount of hair from the manes and tails of horses, and put them to the stakes. Then they poured snuff, but, of course, keeping the savings between the stones of the altar. We dropped into the cracks of the pyramid a few silver coins. Translator hastened to clarify the Yakuts, chto.eto made us to win our expedition to the location of "the spirit of these places." The Yakuts were apparently satisfied.

    In the mountains

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Yurt. Yakutia

    In the south-eastern part of the Verkhoyansk Range has caught the snow. We have just made the pass was a watershed between the Yana and Aldan tukulans flowing. At the bottom was creeping gently sloping lawn, covered with verdant moss cushions and young grass. Here we met a herd of tame deer-fit for the summer in the mountains, where they are less mosquitoes bother. From a distance we reached the smoke of the fires, divorced guarding Tungus reindeer. It was noon. Herd, usually in search of food scattered over the slopes of the now rested. But as soon as we approached them, all eight pieces of deer suddenly rose from their seats. The astonishing spectacle presented this forest of horns! We bought Tungus fat young deer. The guy chased him on another deer bareback, deftly threw him a lasso. Remarkably, the animals stopped as soon as it touches to the lasso, and give yourself to grasp without the resistance. Light summer tent Tungus urossa, made of birch bark or leather. Going into this home, we sat on the floor, strewn fur cushions. Tunguses treated us to tea and fresh reindeer milk. The tea was prepared in subsidiaries smoked pot, hung over a fire blazing in the middle of the tent. "Our narrow-eyed hostess had a pretty nice features, but, apparently. I have not washed. She had even silver teaspoons and fine porcelain cups, with visible pride lessons on the occasion of our visit from an old wrought iron, chests. She did not even forgotten to wipe fur. Pants are made of suede summer and winter also of reindeer skins. Boots, belt and steel, cartridge belt and scabbard, in a word, all that was carrying a Tungus, was well worked and decorated. Leather items were very tastefully embroidered with colorful beads. These patterns dominated by blue and white. Gizmos made of horn or wood, were covered with exquisite carvings and in some places lined with metal. We were treated to tea and biscuits Tungus. Both represented a rare treat for him. We showed him our equipment, mainly weapons. I showed him the work of my store guns. It almost put him out of his inherent philosophical calm state. Tungus was completely taken aback by a range of distance that can be fired from this gun. I went with him to the place where he made a halt, because he wanted to see his reindeer, and the gun. The animal was tied to a tree with a long rope. Despite the smoky fire protection, it seems, suffered from mosquitoes. Tungus channel immediately repel mosquitoes particular a fan. He, apparently, he was very concerned about his reindeer and unsaddled him to rest. Saddle has been made extremely easy. It consisted of a wooden stand, the top covered with fur. And these things Tungus were decorated with ornaments of colored beads. Saddle has no stirrup. Managed animal belt wound around the head and horns. Shotgun Tungus proved extremely primitive. Lock it was made of flint, and the diameter of bullets produced them equal, priblizi¬telno, eleven millimeters. Meanwhile, the owner of it killed him, and moose and bears. It was necessary to have great courage to shoot out of the gun; go well with him on a moose or a bear seemed to me an act of insane courage. Tunguses skillfully track down their prey. They shoot straight from their primitive rifles, and a wounded beast attacks the hunters only in very rare cases. The next stop was in the Cong Urach. This - the first station to the north after a pass through the Verkhoyansk Range.

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    The yurt. Yakutia

    We decided to rest in a well-kept a winter yurt, this post office. She was cleared of mosquitoes with the help of the same life-saving smoke. Here we could na¬konets, more or less quiet night. The word "sleep" is here, however, is quite irrelevant, since, as we crept at midnight in our tent, it was as bright as day. The whole eastern part of the sky was burning glow of the rising sun. It is in front of us a small lake reflecting a crimson sunrise and seemed filled with molten copper. Yakut usually has two yurts: warm winter and easily constructed year. The latter is not very different from an ordinary hut. The peculiarity of it is only Yakut fireplace and chimney is located obliquely. Winter yurt constructed very thoroughly. The components of its log-in slightly inclined inwards. Four corners, especially large pole dug into the ground to form the skeleton of the structure. The corners are connected to the frame of the tent beams. The roof, which serves at the same time and the ceiling, has two ramp. For warming the whole building smear thick, quarter-meter layer of clay mixed with cow and horse dung. Completely covered with this earthy mass Yakut yurta reminds bunch of mole plow up the land. Leading down the course complements the resemblance. In the small window openings Yakut inserts pieces of ice in the winter. In summer, the ice is replaced by delaying the mosquito net from horse hair, tanned fish skins and stitched or mica. Wealthy Yakuts sometimes allow themselves the luxury - inserted into the windows of real glass. Fireplace comprises arranged in a semicircle on the wall and tilted beams, gradually turning into a narrow, too sloping chimney. Wooden wall of the fireplace at its bottom lined with stones and top to bottom covered with a thick layer of clay to protect them from fire. This open front structure rests on a foundation of stones and also covered with clay. Here and it placed a fuel. The logs have vertical and leans against the fireplace wall. Link turns out great, and burning fire warms the frozen winter traveler. The door to the yurt - a low and narrow. It is usually placed under the lip, holding the entire facade of the yurt. This projection is supported by pillars. Sign always facing east, as the Yakuts, leaving in the morning from the yurt, worship the rising sun. This is - one of the many remnants of their cult of the forces of nature. Paul yurt for the most part consists of rammed clay. We are rich, and wooden floors.

    Korovin crib is closely related to the yurt and reported to her door. Horses, even in the most severe cold stay outside and pull itself out of the grass under the snow. Dimensions yurts vary depending on the prosperity of the owners. Similarly, different in size and stables, storerooms, cellars and other outbuildings. The yurt landlord postal station our camp beds were set up. Windows, guard mesh of horsehair, passed enough air, but nevertheless here smelled quite Yakut. This is far from unpleasant odor mixture kumys smells of horse sweat, rancid rotting fish and reindeer fat. I woke up only when I felt that my face is touching someone's damp, warm face. It was a calf, who came to visit us from a nearby barn. He kept himself very easily, and above all tried to honor our breadcrumbs. Above the door to the barn hanging cords, woven from the hair of the horse and the cow. To the ends of the cords are attached miniature buckets and other containers for milk, made from birch bark. These were amulets. They did a shaman. He conjured them against hostile spirits, which thus denies access to the barn. In the corner of the tent, where the seated guests, master of the house, and other respected persons, hanging icons. For a man who thinks practical Yakut, perhaps, good priestly religion, well, much safer for livestock care shaman. Therefore Yakut tries to maintain good relations with the Christian God, and not breaking the terrible for him the world of spirits. The road on which we were moving in the mountainous terrain of the station Kong Urach. They were relatively bad. We drove up to seventy-five kilometers a day, stopping at stations only insofar as it demanded food and a nap. Despite our haste, I still managed to hunt ducks. They are presented here in many kinds and in large numbers across every swamp. Even easier, we could shoot the tundra ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), saving time donned his colorful, brown and white outfit. They masses across on the road itself, and were going up just after the shots were fired. Particular specialty Hertz was the world of insects, and I helped him to hunt for butterflies and beetles. We find here rare species. These species are peculiar to the north of Siberia and are honored guests in all museum collections. We also produced a large number of moths. The following definition shows that among them there are several new species. It was interesting to observe how strictly delimit flight time of night and day butterflies. 7-8 pm, despite the bright sunshine all day butterflies disappeared. They replaced the night, frolicking in the cups with brand colors daylight. Bugs were not numerous, but among them there are great views painted. Most insects have been produced by us in the beginning of July in the upper part of the valley of the Yana. In those places where the road was usually pretty good, we quickly moved forward. Keep the same from our caravan was risky, because to catch up on foot was not easy. Thus the number of species we collected was equal to sixty-four in all 673 copies. But among them was found and described after our return to St. Petersburg seven new forms).

    The Verkhoyansk

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    Yana River. Yakutia

    The Verkhoyansk we arrived the ninth of July. Path between Yakutsk and Verkhoyansk was equal to thirty thousand kilometers. We have used it in the nineteen days. Taking into account that in the beginning of the journey the road was bad, it can be assumed that, in general, we moved relatively quickly. Verkhoyansk did not deserve the name of the city. It consists of a small wooden church and several houses in which they lived pop, head of the district and the merchant. The rest of the residents - about fifteen Yakut families, a dozen Cossacks and political exiled here - lived in yurts. This city has absolutely no streets. Even in the smallest villages prilensknh visited at least one of lanes; here the individual buildings were located quite randomly and far between. To get from one property to another, I had to wade deep puddles and swamps. This firebox covered with soil in the summer deceptive green carpet. Not knowing the local conditions, we often risk losing these sticky clay bogs our free sitting Yakut "sari". Billions of mosquitoes are found both in the city and in the surrounding area. During his stay in Verkhoyansk expedition we suffered from them no less than the most swampy areas, passed by us so far. And here the person has a roommate from the animal world. It - northern species of ground squirrel agile gray rodent the size of a guinea pig. These funny animals are digging their holes not only in the vicinity, but also in the city. They now and then you come across on the eyes. Verkhoyansk District takes no more nor less than 1,077,824 Blocks. kilometers. France is almost half of that, a small Siberian District. We settled on a government apartment. The feed us for dinner juicy deer back, young grouse, partridge and grouse, great fish like sturgeon, whitefish moksun and gave us a glimpse of the animal wealth of the country. Our advanced Verkhoyansk already left, and we could expect that the postal station will prepare us horses. But the police captain assured us that the plant, located between the Verkhoyansk Kolyma and will not be able to supply us with the necessary number of horses. We decided to split the expedition into two parts. Expedition leader, Hertz, left Verkhoyansk eleventh of July. He took with him six pack horses, and went forward, accompanied by the coachman and one of the Cossacks. I was also entrusted with the leadership of the remaining part of the caravan. Thus Hertz had the opportunity to personally order required me horses at stations. In addition, it could, upon arrival to the location of the mammoth, do everything neobho¬dimye preparing for excavations. Five extra days I spent in Verkhoyansk, I used to in his area tours. In the city there is only one attraction - the meteorological station. She was in charge of a scientific and educated political exile. He performed regular meteorological observations and monthly sent their messages Petersburg Central Physical Observatory.

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    Woolly rhinoceros

    Verkhoyansk is the coolest of the localities of the world. Skins foxes, red foxes, ermine and protein are subject to the usual fur trade Verkhoyansk. During one outing I was lucky enough to stumble upon the remains of an interesting fossil animal. This time I was accompanied by an exiled law student of Kharkov University. We proohotilis until one o'clock in the tundra partridges and were about to return home. On the way to the city we had to move on completely dried up bed of a stream. Then I noticed that sticks out from a pebble someone powerful femur. It was the upper part of the thigh, which belonged to one of the largest mammals diluvial period, perhaps fossil rhinoceros. This unexpected finding has made us more attentive. We went up the deep-washed bed of the stream and soon found another large and small bones. On some of them remnants of ligaments and tendons were hanging. Obviously, were these bones belong to the same animal. One would expect that somewhere nearby there are other parts of the skeleton. My companion told me that this stream is called Hoptolog. The image of his sources are located in the forest, in the mountains, nine versts below the place where we now are. Further, between the bed strewn creek stones and pebbles, we found another large limb bones, a shoulder blade, ribs and vertebrae, including the atlas (first cervical vertebra), cling to the root of the tree. Finally, in a small puddle of water we found part of the pelvis, and the upper part of the skull. So we stumbled on the remains of the woolly rhinoceros - the mammoth contemporary.

    It could be assumed that we are somewhere very close to the spot where the body lay century. The bones of the skull and pelvis were the last of our discovery. As the heaviest part of the skeleton, they obviously remain closest to continue location of a corpse. The skeleton was probably washed from affluent coastal slopes in the spring brook. Perhaps the fact that he was in the creek due to any collapse or gradually slipping its shores. Until that time, he is likely to lay with the partly preserved in the soft parts of it in an ever-frozen soil. The soil is thawed, this is now almost one meter in depth. After collecting scattered throughout the whole kilometer bones in one place, we dragged along in Verkhoyansk only one skull. All other production was delivered to the city until the following day. On the way back to St. Petersburg we took with them the remains of a rhinoceros. Livelihoods of local political exiles partly extracted hunting and fishing. Many were engaged in collecting zoological and botanical collections. The collected materials are forwarded them to the Russian universities and museums. An interesting figure represented the local assistant police chief, typically clerical rat. On it there were a lot of funny stories. Once Petersburg Academy of Sciences asked police officer about the news in the Verkhoyansk flora and fauna. In the absence of police officer he was answered his assistant. It read as follows: "Warsaw student Flora Tvardetskaya've been here five years. After serving his sentence, she went home. As a woman named Flora, then such Verkhoyansk police is not known. " This eccentric arranged ball, which invited us. The merchant gave him borrow your gramophone, and the police captain, "built a punch." Two quite comely Yakut dance in their elegant but unseasonably warm fur coats. The original of all the local nurse, is far from being the young lady was wearing. The suit was equipped with its huge "bustle", which used to be worn in the eighties of the last century. Thus, we understand that you can have fun even in Verkhoyansk. The memory of this ball under the Arctic sun belongs to the funny moments of our trip.

    Through the taiga and tundra

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Semya toion. Yakutia

    We left Verkhoyansk sixteenth day of July at 8 pm. Our expedition was part of me. Sevastyanov, a translator, two Cossacks, and two coachmen. We went along the Yana, all the while holding the north-east direction. On both sides of the river stretched green meadows. The grass had already been mown and folded Yakuts in large round haystacks. But it soon disappeared and the last vestiges of human habitation. We were again surrounded by an endless forest, among which wind their branches singing a monotonous song taiga. Riding in front of me Yakut monotonous humming a song. The rhythm of it completely coincides with the step of the horse. Tousled Yakut horses love this music and, pricked ears, run trot along the narrow road. The Yakut songs speaks of the forest people and mermaids, of giants and dwarfs, of severe cold northern nights and the green meadows of the taiga river. The sun was beginning to rise over the dark wall of the forest, when we did, finally, a short stop at the stream. Soon the fire blazed and rustled the water in the boiler. Acrid smoke protected us from mosquitoes. Conveniently sitting in the saddle, leaning against the tall pines, I'm not taking off the grid head, sipping hot tea. And suddenly, quite close to me, almost touching my face, rustled in the air for a gray body and went down a tree over me. It was a flying squirrel. Resting on a pine tree and feeling completely safe, it is curiously stared at us with their black eyes. These rodents are pretty soft, silvery-gray pelt. There they were in the forest often. Like all animals are crepuscular, they are looking for their own food in the early morning and late evening. With the help of flying membrane between the front and hind legs, they fly from the top of one tree to the other foot. After that flying squirrels with lightning speed once again climb up the trunk. After two days of travel, we arrived at the home of a rich Yakutia. He received us very warmly and well speaking in Russian, told us many interesting things.

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    Bride. Yakutia

    In addition to three hundred and seventy horses and cows he owned another six hundred and fifty reindeer. They are grazing time, under the supervision of the Tungus in Taskhayaktahskih mountains. He had three warm barn and an attached pantry to the yurt. Here, in the pantry, he proudly opened before me their chests. They were filled with gorgeous male and female fur caftans, formal attire, harnesses and saddle-cloths. It was embellished with silver. He had lots of colorful fur carpets, carved boxes, boxes made of birch bark, and the like peschey. This fist-Yakut even let me look at the cash desk, which was, of course, a sign of his great confidence and at the same time boasting. In the corner stood a huge storage room, darkened by time, a chest. It was made of larch. "Safe" This was actuated very solid and decorated with wrought-iron ornamentation Yakut. It hung heavy three ancient castle. Also wrought silver dishes, cups and spoons pourable he was still filled with leather bag with money. The number of them, anyway, reached several thousand. Yakut I asked why he keeps with him his wealth, rather than keeping them in the bank - in the city? And got quite a crafty answer: - I and so a lot of care with the shepherds to whom I entrust their herds. Constantly we have to ensure that they do not eat too many young animals. I am happy and what in my chest of money, at least not decrease. Bands I shepherd the rubles of others, I would be eternally feared misfortune. One day, I, perhaps, would have had to hear that my whole herd eaten by wolves. One of the daughters of our host was engaged and was going to move soon to the parents of her fiance. Pre groom had to pay for her dowry specified in advance. It consisted of ten horses, sixty reindeer, twenty-four cows and 2,500 rubles in cash. The bride was the eldest son of the neighboring tayona. On behalf of his father, he invited us to attend the wedding, which was to coincide with a large summer holiday kumys Yakut (ysah). According to the father of the bride, the groom has long been transferred to his daughter's dowry. The cost of it, according to custom, was equal to half of the value of the consideration for the bride dowry. According to the custom of the Yakuts, the bride's dowry is considered to be the property of the groom's father. After his death, together with other property, it goes to the son. On the contrary, private property remains the property of the bride of a young woman.

     

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Horse for the bride. Yakutia

    It usually consists of a celebratory fur coat, clothing, and more or less rich in silver headdress. Thus the Yakuts - as opposed to other Turkic peoples, to which they belong and the ethnological and the similarity of the language - there is a mutual exchange of gifts rather than buying a real bride. A peculiar feature is the fact that the groom has the right to withdraw from the bride or wife, and this failure can occur for many years after the wedding. The cause of fractures is often a bad temper darling or her infertility. The latter is especially rich in Yakuts, very frequent reason for the termination of marriage. Returns to his father's house the bride receives a dowry back and his private property. Paid groom bride price also goes to the rejected bride, that would give her a great price in the eyes of others, poorer suitors. They seduce even then. that of a woman who marries a second time, have to pay dowry half less than the original. our host's daughter cradled in the depths of the yurt baby. Therefore, it has already been done is an indispensable condition for which it set-law wife, his son and heir. "Parking lot" tayona, which was supposed to happen a wedding feast, was lying on the road. We are now advancing through the vast rugged, swampy area. These are open plains north violent hurricanes. human gaze wanders here only for boundless larch. Only they can withstand the prevailing winds and frost here and more or less drag out a miserable existence. The closer we moved to the northern boundary of the forest, the deep became less root system of the trees, and they became more and more low and ugly. Wind often pulls them up by the roots, and these fallen larch hurricane represent a kind of picture. In some places large space occupied by lying in a chaotic mess trees. Sometimes even I have to make large detours around it torn up by the roots windbreak. The soil is covered here randomly intertwined roots. Permafrost soil of northern Siberia melts in summer only 50-75 centimeters deep. Therefore, the tree is not able to develop tap roots and limited side. these roots network usually forms around a tree near the correct drive from three to five meters in diameter. This disk, observations by me produced penetrates deeper into the ground than 50-70 centimeters, ie. E. Just as much in summer is thawed soil. It is understood that the wind pulls easily from the earth, these badly-rooted trees. Nevertheless, persistent larch settles even mossy tundra, where large areas have not seen any beast or bird.

    Horses cautiously seeking ways in these swampy, covered with moss, ground. Stop at least for an instant, and they begin to slowly sink into the mire! Trees eke out these bogs even more sad, more short-term existence. Barely penetrated through the moss cover, roots fall in the mud, often covering the frozen ground a considerable depth. In such cases the tree dies, having reached only a very small amount. So there are vast forest cemetery. Dotting their trunks of dead trees gradually sink into the mire. Bleached by the sun and the air fragments of twigs and branches are reminiscent of the skeletons. Walking on foot through this vacillating under the feet of moss, all the while you experience the feeling that spanned moving over the carpet. I do not dare to make a single solid step and is continuously in a state of helpless uncertainty. Man and animal sigh of relief, breaking the eerie trees of the cemetery. On both sides of the dangerous road traveler threaten deep pit filled with water. They are difficult to see, because the water surface is covered with a thin layer of light-green algae. One wrong move - and the horse together with his rider disappearing into the quagmire. Animals as well as people avoid these marshy tundra. Tungus and Yakuts are convinced that the prince of hell, "tayon devil" lives here. In their naive belief, he lives in its vast underground chambers, hidden from our eyes this cunning, hesitant moss. Almost all of the fantastic legends of the Yakuts are played in these terrible places. In the summer, there are masses of wild bees, wasps and bumblebees, circling over the tundra flowers. They make their nests in the road. Our horses often happened to step on a hornet or bee nest. Angry insects immediately catch the culprit in the destruction of their homes and on the other, following her horses. Stung the horse rears, dropping luggage and sometimes the rider, which then has to be removed from the combined efforts of the swamp.

    In Yakut toion

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Toyon with family. Yakutia

    The picture changed for the better only near the small river flowing down from the mountains Taskhayaktahskih. It flows through a broad valley. Here, on the swampy meadow, we met a very special time of year for a summer crew. It was drawn by a bull ... sleigh. Thank softness ground Yakuts even in the summer enjoy this way of traveling. We were approaching the tayon-kyule. parking Yakut Prince. On the set of coastal meadows, grazing cows and horses. Before us lay the Yakut village with its many yurts, extensive cribs and storerooms. Tayon already knew about our arrival and solemnly greeted us at the entrance to the tent. It was a gray-haired man highly visible Mongolian type. He was dressed for a holiday. Over blue shirt, Chinese silk, was wearing a dark red, embroidered with gold braid, coat, "granted by the king."

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    Feast. Yakutia

    On the wide silver belt hung a hunting knife, handle and scabbard of which were richly decorated with silver. Tayon later told me that this knife was transmitted in the family from father to son as a family jewel. One of his ancestors got it back in 1746 from the Russian queen Elizabeth. Nationals tayona called him Duke. Within the tribe, he had the right of chief judge. Yakut governor was supposed to give him an honorable reception. Yurts were festively embellished freshly cut birch trees and larches. Even to the carved poles, which are usually tied horses, it was attached greens. Above the entrance to the tent tayona adorned with large garlands of flowers. Tayon took us to a place of honor under the icons. however, the interior of the tent was not very festive. Dimensions of the rooms were, however, more than the other Yakuts, but the home decoration is no different from usual. For men, it was placed a heavy antique table made of larch wood. Around the table were placed benches. In the other corner was the exact same furniture, designed for women and children. The huge fireplace with side benches complete the decoration of the home. Its wide cornice adorned twelve vessels for koumiss, starting with the smallest and ending with a huge, contain not less than five liters. Sam tayon mare brought us in one of vy¬rezannyh larch cups. It is prepared from fermented, ice-cold equine milk. In the courtyard were preparations for a double celebration. Everywhere were placed tables and benches.

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    Female festive attire. Yakutia

    On the lawn was cleared and leveled ground for games and dances. The large hearth cooked and grilled dishes of holiday, as expected many guests. Herds tayona substantially decreased and this day. Were killed and three foal - a favorite dish of the Yakuts. The Giant is already seething cauldron "Salomat" - a kind of porridge is made from flour, melted butter and water. Girls demolished in cool storage large vessels with mare's milk. Here they poured it into a huge leather skins, contains one hundred and fifty liters each. Stood these "leather drum" in the cool wells, laid out and covered with chunks of ice. In anticipation of the celebration Yakuts have been accumulating for two weeks mare's milk. Only now I understand why on faces foals were some strange wooden fixtures. The last were provided with an island that foals unwittingly pricked innocent mother. Only in the evening, already after milking mares, Yakuts released rightful owners of milk from the absurd headgear. Finally, the guests began to arrive. They all come on horseback. The manager of the festival said the prince on the approximation of the bride and groom. Standing at the gate of his yard painted, tayon took them even more solemn than us. The bride and groom dismounted, bowing low, approached the head of the family, and kissed his hand in turn. The bridegroom came, according to custom, on a black horse, and the groom - on white. Kaftan it was made of bright red cloth, furred beaver squirrel hit and richly decorated with gold brocade. On his head was a huge bearskin caps. Kaftan reached land and ended with edging of white reindeer fur. Blue silk bride shone five silver hoops thick as a finger. They are worn over the head. In front of them descended silver chain comes to the massive silver belt. Exactly the same chain, and went down on the back of the bride. The ears were adorned with heavy earrings filigree. On hand were numerous rings and bracelets. This bride silver dress weighed no less than sixteen pounds. Poor barely moved under his weight. Fashion cripples the psyche of people even here at the Arctic Circle! Horse of the bride was taken away along with dru¬gimi, and all went to the tent tayona. From it came out of his only daughter, and welcomed a daughter in front of his father's yurt. She was dressed as beautifully as the bride. Bow it was cold and solemn. It is possible that this demanded Yakut etiquette; possible and that it is not very happy about the marriage of his brother, now obey her as unmarried, married daughter authorities. Despite his nineteen tayona daughter is still slow to marriage. She had already refused three suitors proposed to her father.

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    Kumiss. Yakutia

    Yakuts, often issuing his girls married at the age of 13-15 years, are considered rare overgrown bride. On this night, we did not know the rest in the tent allotted to us, as outside, until dawn, was very lively. The guests ate and drank. Their number is continuously increasing. By the morning to collect at least one hundred and fifty people, and only then began a real holiday of koumiss. By the blazing fire approached by one of the guests of honor. It was a gray-haired man with a face completely covered with wrinkles. Looking east and holding a glass of koumiss, he gave thanks to "the good and merciful deity." Then, facing west, the old man murmured formula spells, facing the evil, bringing the spirit of unhappiness. His speech was followed by gradual pouring koumiss into a blazing fire in front of him. Thus emptied glass, he handed it to the owner who was standing behind him. He took it with a deep bow. Now brought full glasses kumys tayonu and all standing near him. Pouring a few drops into the fire, and bowing to the east, they drained the cups. In continuation of this ceremony were silent the rest of the festival. Youth groups gathered in the playground. On the boys were wearing only short knee-length suede pants, knotted on the hips. Yakuts put them directly on the naked body. Games start fighting. All disputes and resolved nedora¬zumeniya audience. During the fight followed the game "in a blind cat." Then hopped on one foot. Selecting leg was free, but had to do was run only on this leg. Finally, a particularly lively play in the burner. Catching called a falcon, and the other eleven players - ducks. The number of participants of this game was limited to twelve. only boys participated in all games. The audience were old men, women, girls and children. They keenly followed the course of the game, encouraging friends and relatives, celebrated the victory cries of delight. On a meadow going to dance girls. They slowly circled with lowered along the body with his hands and softly sang a monotonous song, after finishing this game sharp cries and jumps. The men, both old and molo¬dye, not in the least interested in the entertainment girls. The audience were only women and children. Meanwhile, the tables were already closely feasting. Woman holding a tray and more new Salomat pots and baskets of steaming meat. In addition, all tables were a huge amount of boiled and fried fish on a skewer, grouse, wild ducks and geese. Served fried in butter udders of cows, mares and reindeer. Very tasty were prepared in the same manner deer and elk languages. As a favorite delicacy of the owner personally gave me roasted in the coals thigh foal. The Yakuts were very surprised that Sevastyanov refused to treat. But I, in turn, also had to reject one dish that I did not dare to try. These were mixed with chalk and frozen on the ice cream, which was in abundance ... adding cranberries and red salmon caviar. I was deeply struck by the amount absorbed by the Yakuts of food and drink. Again and again dried guests giant vessels with mare's milk. Disappeared huge, absolutely fabulous amounts of meat. One of the guests at my eyes devastated huge wooden pot filled to the brim with gold from fat Salomat. Finally, he licked it clean, with his tousled head disappeared in a bowl up to his ears.

    The mood is generally serious and slow Yakuts rose somewhat and was even fun. But the drunk was not visible. Boys "for fun" drags from under the noses of neighbors pieces intended for them. But in general, all kept restrained. Old men served in the first place and paid them the best pieces. However, the tayon and his closest friends seemed to me not quite sober. Between them revolved koumiss suspiciously small glass containing probably forbidden "Russian drink" Tayon even lost is now inherent in all Yakuts memory for numbers. When our translator asked tayona how many deer he has, he replied that they had, there are several thousand, but how much - forgot. I asked tayona about when leave young couple to marry a priest. The answer was calm and good-natured. - Plenty of time! Kid still insufficiently strengthened in order to go so far. Yakuts usually joined the wedding with the baptism of children. Often come to the crown was baptized at the same time have a few guys. Tayon and some other members of the festival said in Russian. They assured me that the preparation of koumiss made Yakuts even from their Central Asian homeland, with only taken them out of there home zhivotnymi- cows and horses. All related to the preparation of koumiss utensils, holiday-koumiss, wrestling and other festive games are, according to them, just as the ancient origin. No matter how interesting was kumys holiday, we still had to move into the future path. Only at eleven o'clock in the morning to me with great effort I managed to tear his comrades from the feast. One of the coachmen could hardly stay in the saddle.

    Mountain pass

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    The tomb of the shaman. Yakutia

    Pass-Tas mountains hayak-s been crossed our twenty-fourth of July. Here on the stony bare top, we again caught a pyramid built of stones. Like the previous, it was adorned with offerings of the faithful. Nearby, in a small ravine, it was the tomb of the famous Tunguska shaman. He was buried here for a hundred and twenty years ago. Our coachmen with superstitious fear looked at the grave. It was a wooden frame, whose height was six meters long, and as a man. All four corners were reinforced sturdy vertical, made of larch trunks, poles. Gaps between logs allowed to see parts of the skeleton and the remains of animal skins. Passing the natives are still paid tribute to the spirit of respect for the one who during his life brutally exploited their religious ignorance. By log cabins were everywhere attached sacrifice.

    Even the most undemanding plants are not able to live in these inhospitable heights. And yet the most sublime places Mountains Tas-hayak-max do not exceed 1530 meters. Naked, covered with rubble shingle slopes in some places covers a meager turf. But reindeer moss feels there is still very good, especially in the more or less protected areas. In winter, there did not use horses as they would have died of starvation. They are replaced by reindeer moss digs itself out of the snow. Without reindeer moss man failed to move these mountains in winter. We have large herds of deer met on several occasions. They belonged to the Tungus and Yakut owners and protect the Tungus herdsmen. Number of goals in such a herd ranged from eight hundred to one thousand five hundred pieces. At the height of 800-900 meters further there are trees. At an altitude of a thousand meters, they come across only in protected recesses of the wind. Pathetic ugly trunks of birch and larch trees do not exceed the fingers in thickness. But their growth rings are talking about a very old age. At the pass, we have seen only crawling on the ground willow (several kinds), and barren bushes of blueberries, cranberries and cranberry. In fact, the pass and the north-eastern slopes of the mountains has nothing grew. Insects are extremely small. From time to time we come across already heavily battered daytime butterflies are not of interest to the collection. "Nochnyanok" later in lower lying area of ​​the forest, it was also very, very little. Conversely, mammals are presented abundant species if not, then quantitatively. We repeatedly popada¬lis large herds of reindeer (wild) and the northern mountain sheep. Unfortunately, I've never been able to sneak up on this game on the fearful distance gunshot. Deer also and even more sensitive and watchful mountain sheep from afar notice us in this bare, devoid of any kind was a cover, terrain. On one of the sites we Tungus two ruble gained just killed a young ram. Its meat is very tasty and tender, as well as meat and try me later Transcaucasian mountain sheep. In my opinion, it is for the superior quality of our meat of wild goats.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Corral. Yakutia

    Willow Grouse are found here throughout the year. They find in these mountains a lot of berries. These harmless birds stopped to pluck berries and were going up into the air only when they have time to pack poredet of shots. Often, after a single shot on location I remain to twelve birds. Tunguses kill them with a primitive bow. Gunpowder and Lead are reserved for more valuable game. Once flown headlong on a flock of partridges falcon chose one of them and ule¬tel with fluttering prey on top of a rock. The robber took up lunch. Feathers and flew. We scared him and thus forced to quit have killed the victim. Angry birds circling above us, with loud cries of expressing their anger. I was able to shoot it. Our translator Sleptcov was a master of all trades. In addition to their immediate duties he performed the role we still cook and preparator. Starring the Falcon pelt, he gave meat Coachman. They offered me a hot cooked out of it, and I am convinced that it is in their qualities does not yield meat grouse. It was a peregrine falcon. Little by little I began to master the Yakut language. My teacher was the same blind. We usually went in single file, and Sleptcov gave me lessons of the Yakut language. It amused a lot of our coachmen. Blind for a long time been a school teacher in one of the largest Yakut villages located in the southern part of the region. He went with us only to see his own "city" Kolyma and relatives living there. Twenty-sixth of July, we arrived at the station Curel. We drove through the rich forest lakes region, which lies between the mountains and Indigirka.

    Recently, there were heavy rains, very hindered our journey. I had to wait all day in the water fall overflowing rivers. Great so far the weather has changed dramatically. Rain walked several times a day. At night the temperature dropped a few degrees below zero. At night in the tent, we feel cold even more than before in the mountains, where there was a temperature of 9 ° -13 ° (below zero Celsius) under a clear sky. Between ten o'clock in the evening and two hours in the morning it was getting dark. In clear weather at this time advancing the thick twilight, and in the rain it was quite dark. The landlord Curel Station feared for the safety of their horses. Our Yakuts only after two days of waiting decided to go roaring stream Dogdo, the largest river in front of Indigirka.

    Under the polar shower

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Mountain pass. Yakutia

    Twenty Ninth July went ... snow! The forest, which we are now passing, quickly acquired a winter view. By evening, the snow gave way to rain. Only at eleven o'clock in the evening we are in an unusual dark for us, finally we got to the dilapidated log. In this swampy forest human settlements are not possible. We had perforce to be content with such miserable shelters. These "the hut" we still preferred the night in tents. They, at least, was a dry floor, and a tent had to be split into a swamp. The rain continued the next day. Lying on our way rivulet was so overflowing that the driver found a ford only after two hours of searching. On the way to the ford, we had to drive through a forest glade. Here we saw the ruins of two Yakut yurts. Coachmen told us that in these places a long time ago people lived, but the village had died from smallpox. Higher up the river, we really saw a few coffins made of larch. They had already been partially destroyed. Beach water changes, and one of the coffins slid down. From its cracks us smiling skull covered with hair. The body was wrapped in fur. Our coachman and Cossacks looked with fear at the sight. I would like to bring along at least one of the skulls. I suggested a few Sleptsova lag behind the caravan, but he strongly dissuaded me from my plans. Similarly, the act would greatly antagonize nose coachmen-Yakuts. We quickly went forward, away from this terrible place. Yakuts avoid such places because they believe that evil spirits dwell among the tombs. Not on as a half hour after that, at our crossing a small stream, Sleptsova horse stumbled, and the poor man flew into the water right through her head. However, it is already enough pre izmochil rain, and it became a little wetter all the others. When we are in the evening was dried in a flaming fire wet clothes, coachmen, glancing sideways at me, trying to convince Sleptsova, why it happened with this misfortune. This, they believed, was the punishment for the evil thoughts and intentions! The next day, until the evening came first snow and then rain. Throughout the day, on our way we did not come across any living creature. Horses running with ponurennymi heads. they found no pasture, and were obviously very hungry At the last halt. The road became so muddy that they continually bogged down and moved with difficulty. At noon, we gave them an hour of rest and then have progressed without interruption until eleven o'clock in the evening. I had to stop twenty kilometers to the nearest log, exhausted horses were unable to go further.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Deer. Yakutia

    On this day, we left behind only twenty-eight kilometers. Dried we could not, because the tent was too close to be able to dissolve in her fire. Together with the coachmen and the Cossacks were lying there like sardines, and a little, warmed each other. On the third day we was in a terrible firebox tundra. It was a downpour! In all we had a dry thread. Nearest frame appeared dilapidated and little protection from rain. My comrades stubbornly did not want to go further. I only agreed to a four-hour stop for a rest and tea. My hope that this pause will give vigor exhausted horse almost did not materialize. Animals weakened by the hour, and at ten o'clock in the evening we had to stay overnight again. We spent in the saddle as much as fourteen hours yet passed today still less yesterday - only twenty-two kilometers! On the first morning, I crawled out of the tent. The rain was still going on. By noon we came to a fairly affable framework. He had even windows, covered tanning fish skins. Here, on the table I found left me a letter Hertz. It was very gloomy. He had to face the same difficulties that we do. Despite the lighter luggage, advanced part of the expedition ahead of us only three days. Nevertheless, he kept asking me to hurry. We have long rested in the dry cabin: In the evening the rain finally stopped. Choosing a sublime place, we pitched a tent on it and lit a huge fire near it. Soon boiled tea. The mood began to improve. We took off their outer clothing, underwear, boots, and hung them on poles around the camp fire. Similarly, we did with saddles. Naked, like us, Yakuts obsushivayut his body, alternately turning to fire the person's back. We followed them and found this method of warming magnificent. It is extremely practical and well protects against colds. Unfortunately, barely the rain stopped as there were mosquitoes disappeared. They tore up our blood does not secure the body. In addition to this furnace tundra gray mosquitoes and catches travyanisgo-green appearance of these cute insects. Their scientific name remains unknown to me, but I firmly stated that both species as gray and green, equally painful bite. In the morning, we had barely sat down in the seat, the sky once again opened its gates. It was the fifth day of the journey under the continuous rain. We spent the night in a tent near the lake. The remaining tracks were talking about that here just before we slept and Herz. The next morning, an awkward movement of the horse made me take away not nice cold bath. The roof is made by noon we log the huge gaping hole. However, the drivers did not want to move on. They said to the translator that the horse completely bogged down in the sodden earth. Both Cossack Sevastyanov and even supported them. It took all my energy to persuade the satellites continue. For many days, we did not met any whatsoever was game. Finally, through the gray veil of rain, I noticed sitting on larch large eagle. He has admitted to itself the vanguard of our caravan of twenty paces, and only rose into the air. I quickly took out his gun case and sent him a good charge fraction. Steps through three hundred and he was again looking at us with a branch of another tree. The second shot was just as unsuccessful as the first. Until the bones soaked eagle, wings flapping hard, withdrew from the worry of his people. On the day we went to ten o'clock in the evening and spent the night in terrifying marshland. It was impossible to pitch a tent, and we spent the night sitting on the saddle.

    Exhausted horses could not take a single step further. Nowhere near it was not suitable as a combustible material. Even our Yakuts, after persistent but unsuccessful attempts, refused to make a fire. So that night we did not have tea. I had to chew rye crackers. All other supplies have already been exterminated. Hungry and shivering in silence we sat around the campfire is not fierce. At dawn I saw sitting on the nearest larch hawkish owl. She carefully examined her amber-yellow eyes and slumbering people standing dejectedly about their horses. My shot took her from the tree, and woke the sleeping. Rain stopped. East zaalel first sunlight. We started with new energy for the campfire. At this time, our attempts were unsuccessful. Quickly drinking tea, we set out. However, the horse weakened with each passing minute. Carried out in the tundra firebox night regained their strength, since, despite the holiday, there was absolutely nothing to them. Force them vi¬dimo, came to an end. But we still could not stop. First dropped my white horse. I have a second swim in the swamp. At the same time suffered tied to the saddle gun. I sat down on one of the pack horses. Her cargo was previously divided between other, more powerful horses. But after a few kilometers, my already unsaddled white horse fell again. We have raised it. Deadly animal sad eyes seemed to be talking about completely exhausted. After much wrangling with coachmen we left here our poor horse. She only looked after us listlessly. I promised Yakuts reimburse its costs in the case, if they are satisfied on the way back that she was eaten by wolves. Soon they fell another two pack horses. Coachmen finally rebelled and told me that there will move a step further. In their view, it was necessary to get to the nearest station a few spare horses. From one of the Yakuts Sleptcov learned that close to the carriageway of the road lives in his yurt impoverished widow of one tayona. She probably could provide us with horses. Willy-nilly, we unsaddled the horses and the caravan is located on vacation. The sun is now in full. I Sleptcov and well aware of the way the driver went to ask for help from the widow tayona.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Yurt. Yakutia

    Yakut lived in a neat yurt located in a large lake. It was full of many small, overgrown with shrubs islands. The horses we could not get in disordered. She sent them to the summer in the mountains, where they were less bothered by mosquitoes. We wanted to go further, but the widow tayona brought us koumiss and invited to relax and her yurt. After the driver refreshed our cool drink, I sent him alone to the nearest station. She was away at a distance of twelve kilometers. Meanwhile, treating us to a wonderful mare's milk, the old woman, with tears, she told of how her late husband from the rich to the poor toion turned. It was a sad story of rampant deer plague and glanders, in a short time which killed a large number of cattle. He died as her son and two daughters. The old woman was still complaining about his fate, when suddenly the tent included two women, one - fourteen, another - the age of seventeen. Suit their was no more complicated than a suit ancestress Eve in paradise. It was the granddaughter of our hostess. With their abundant braid dripping. On his chest were baskets full of eggs. They were reinforced thrown over the neck cords of horsehair. Going to the length of the island collecting the eggs of wild ducks and geese, they, of course, left the house unnecessary while sailing clothes. After a brief conversation incomprehensible for me and grandmother, the girl freed from the baskets and leisurely threw themselves immediately hung on poles clothes. After that, the eldest of the sisters turned to conventional Sleptsova questions about the purpose of our trip. The old woman complained to us that the two girls still do not have suitors. Daughters tayona refused marriage with the poor, but they had only seven horses and twenty-eight reindeer and a paltry dowry was not interested suitors from wealthier Yakuts. Love marriage Yakuts are very rare. The old woman cooked eggs to us. These were the eggs of wild ducks, geese and loons. None of them came to be hatched. Yakuts do not keep poultry, but living near rivers and lakes, an abundance of eggs collected dikozhivuschih waterfowl. They permanently store them in its glaciers. My little "kodak" in complete safety was one of the seat pockets. With Sleptsova I managed, however, with great difficulty, to persuade the eldest of the girls pose in front of this "magical drawer." At my request, she put on for her this holiday clothes. At this time the dressing was behind the curtain. The youngest of the girls disappeared and did not appear until my departure.

    To medium-Kolyma

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Conductor. Yakutia

    An hour later we arrived at the station Ebel. Send us the driver to run errands, and fresh horses brought here our caravan before our arrival. Two days we rested here on transferred over the last six days of hardship. I allowed myself to this with a clear conscience that made Hertz away shortly before our horses had not yet returned. The other horses were not the same in the whole district. One clever Yakut so well repaired my broken gun in a way that it has faithfully served for me until the end of the expedition. What kind of people are these skillful Yakuts! From here I send a hospitable widow of a pound of tea and a packet of sugar. Girls got the motley calico and necklaces of colored beads. Surrounding neighborhood was flooded over the banks rechonkoy. In these days of rest, I very well to hunt for ducks. Abundant water in this region game drew the attention of his astonishing credulity.

    Yakuts catch her special traps. Nineteen August we arrived at the station Selegnyah located on the west bank of the Indigirka. At dawn the next day was, first of all, transported through the flow of our horses. At this point, the width of the river is 750 meters. It was three o'clock in the morning, when the drivers drove the reluctant horses into the water. The first went to a party of eight animals. Horses sailed closely holding about one another, but the stream quickly carried them downstream. Ahead, lightweight Yakutsk canoe floated one of the coachmen. Behind him with the greatest exertion swept the whole herd. In the middle of the horse of the river were cut off from each other over and already alone swam to shore. But they happily reached the opposite bank. Some of them were, however, found one and a half kilometers below. We ourselves, together with the baggage, crossed to the big boats. An hour later, the caravan set off again. The weather this time was great. In this hilly area E moved relatively quickly. At the next station. Ken-Kehl Hatygnah Malaya and had a lot of horses. There just are the richest Yakut ulus. Near the village grazing many horses and deer. Yakuts expertly prepared delicious downed and frozen cream, mixed with blueberries, blueberries and other berries. Especially good are frozen and condensed cream, flavored jelly from wild cherry fruit. Dish it has a pleasant taste reminiscent of hydrocyanic acid. At the Yakuts berries harvested cherry fruit and store them in the glaciers. A special treat residents adjacent to the Indigirka and Kolyma area is the liver of burbot. I have seen the giant harpoon caught burbot, whose weight reached up to forty kilograms. Their liver, cooked in salt water, really has the right to occupy one of the first places among the Yakut delicacies. In between are Indigirka, and Kolyma Alazeya lakes, and within these rivers are extremely rich in fish. We had to see how the Yakuts were fishing nets, hooks and administer. Often caught salmon and burbot weighing up to one pounds or more. Karas, tench, pike and grayling are set.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    North fish

    Lowland between Indigirka, Alazeya, Kolyma is dotted with many large and small lakes. We passed this place for two and a half weeks. This part of our journey was equal to a hundred kilometers. Returning back in the winter, we rode in a sleigh with reindeer on a perfectly straight direction. Now, however, we have to do the boring rounds. The local lakes are located so close to each other that between them there is often only a narrow strip of land. Lake district is of great interest for the zoologist and hunter. We were in a tent on a camp bed, which stem from each movement went deeper into the shaky ground. In the summer, in the dim twilight-night northern, water game is in constant motion. Above us rushing duck flocks. Taking off from the surface of the lake, they soon fell back to the noise of his water. Almost continuously heard the sounds of the wings of wild geese and swans. The shouts of do not cease for a single moment during the whole night. Even in my dreams I chased melodious, reminiscent of bell ringing, cries of swans flying by. Once we get close to any lake, both from the banks were going up his flock of ducks. We have no time to waste costs replenish our stock of provisions. Geese and swans are much more cautious ducks. Even more difficult was to sneak up on me lord of the whole population of this water - white-tailed eagles. Nests are commonly located on the most dried-up trees. Our Cossacks respectfully called these jacks "eagle's houses," so solid and durable, they were built. skull, bones, wings and feathers of birds and animals: Near the remains of the feast of nests of these large predators were scattered everywhere. Location Orlan slot provides a broad outlook. Sneak up to him unnoticed - almost impossible. One morning, when the sun, even though half of August, brightly lit surface of the nearby lake, I noticed circling eagle above the water. BOOM rushed to a group here numerous black-throated diver, he chose one of these birds. It was interesting to watch is now played out on the water a furious struggle. The drama ended quickly in favor of the eagle. Keeping prey in its claws, he proudly walked to the opposite shore.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    bird flight. Yakutia

    The other loons on the lake with angry cries rushed to the site of the battle just ended. At this time, we stopped to rest. I traveled to the lake and crept to interest me Orlan. When he reached the opposite shore, I quickly found a nest. Not far away, on one of the larch trees, he sat himself eagle. Leading the horse on the bit, to me, oddly enough, I was able to approach him at a very close distance. It was only then I realized the reason for his negligence. Next to the old Orlan, who subsequently proved female, sitting young couple. The whole company dined freshly caught loons. A mother's love is clearly prevailed over prudence. Greatly excited by my appearance of the bird does not even move. She was making a peculiar sound, which served probably something like a young warning. When the distance between us was reduced to twenty-five steps, the bird finally rose into the air. My shot made it down to the ground. Young apparently did not know anything about the man and his machinations. They let a me very close, and I easily shot them both. Accompany me to the old Cossack killed a wounded eagle. Young birds were feathered dark old, but they still did not have a white tail and gray-black wings. I have already pointed out that the Yakuts are willing to eat the meat of birds of prey. From the use of eagles they killed me, however, refused. One of them points to the superstition that living a spirit in the body of an eagle. During the lunch rest I was very amused by one of our coachmen. Once at the station, I noticed quite a grizzled Yakut landlord and asked the station to give me more of a young escort. However, at the first stop I found his presence in the caravan. However, I immediately had to make sure that it is not worse than the young to cope with carrying the heavy crates and bales. Translator told me that this old man was eighty-six years old. I was amazed. The youngest of the coachmen confirmed Comrade words and added that this old Yakut just two years ago, remarried. His wife - quite young Yakut. My surprise increased even more when I saw the Yakut sat on his horse. It is easy to run up, he jumped into the saddle, completely without the aid of hands. We arrived in the middle Kolyma-second of September. Lying between the Verkhoyansk Kolyma and two thousand kilometers robbed us one and a half months time.

    Berezovka

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Winter fishing. Yakutia

    Mid-Kolyma made us a better impression than Verkhoyansk. However, we may be, we are simply used to the Siberian town and after wandering across the tundra were glad to meet people again. In this city, the former Yakutsk region, there were at that time two hundred seventy three resident, of which eighty political exiles. Due to its extreme northeastern position Kolyma is one of the most inhospitable places of exile. Head of the district was at that time. with Hertz to Berezovka. To act in his Cossack Ataman gave me a letter from the head of the expedition. It is reported that the body of a mammoth, contrary to our fears, was found in good condition. It was partially damaged only the soft parts of the head and back. We do urgent preparations to leave for Missovuyu. It - Yakut small village located on the Kolyma River, near its confluence with the river Berezovka.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Fur. Yakutia

    Two days later, we were seated in the boat. We had to drive three hundred twenty-five kilo¬metrov on p. Kolyma. Its width in this area than a kilometer. In the course of a three-day trip we did a very short stop cooking write. The onset of the night did not prevent us from moving downstream. Wrapped in a coat made of reindeer fur, we slept on the floor of the boat. Especially valuable were purchased by us, on the advice of two exiled students, reaching to the knee boots made of reindeer fur. Both of these students, their specialty, were our colleagues and would be willing to participate in our work. I, however, did not manage to get permission from local authorities, who severely rude and extremely unfriendly treated to are here against their will, political exiles. Above the boat and then carried by flocks of migratory birds. Geese and swans at dawn and in the evening went down to relax and be fed up coming across here on the islands. I have not once been able to shoot down them from our silently moving past the boat. Some of these small islands seemed completely white due to the number of covering their birds. I have enriched our ornithological collection of two snow-white copies whooper swan and three northern species of geese. Migratory birds have already left the place hurriedly its northern nesting. It spoke about the upcoming weather. Indeed, both the day of our arrival at Missovuyu snowed. He did not stop for the next three days. We realized that the short northern summer came to an end. Polar Winter comes into its own. When stopped snowing, it established a clear frosty weather. At night the temperature dropped to-8 ° C. In Missovoy we had ten days to wait for the horses taken to send Beryozovka Hertz. I therefore had plenty of time for hunting, and fresh snow was me tremendously helpful. In addition to all kinds of water fowl I managed to shoot a few rare falcons here. They already flew to the south, along with other migratory birds. Among them, I got almost completely polar white gyrfalcon. On moonlit nights I lay in wait for foxes. They were attracted to the shore emitted Yakuts Kolyma fish dregs. Middendorf calls these animals, "the jackals of the north."

    Indeed, they are incredibly audacious and voracious. I do not have time when I am trembling moonlight to shoot one of them, followed by immediately showing another, attracted by the same fish refuse. Overshot, I noticed one day that the frightened animal was rounded mound on which I sat, and still headed to seduce his delicacy. During his reckless courage they paid with their downy white rind. Not far from yurts we one morning noticed traces of wolves, obviously attracted here by the same fish refuse. But for all the time spent in Missovoy I did not manage to put at least one of these gray robbers. Before leaving for Berezovka I cooked poisonous bait and instructed Yakutia, we have lived here in which the yurt, arrange them on your own. After an eight-day waiting returned to Berezovka head of the Kolyma region. Arriving with him were horses grazing on the opposite bank. He told us that on the Berezovka currently have very much snow. Painted picture they made Sevastyanov lose heart. He said that the geological studies in this deep snow is quite impossible, and together with the police officer ver¬nulsya back to Kolyma. The next morning, after crossing the river, we set off again on horseback. I had to make small transitions, as the horses were already tired. Slowly we moved initially swampy taiga and already the twelfth kilometer made a halt for the night. Lying to the east of the Kolyma taiga often fade to a very large space. We have time and again blocked the road half-charred trunks and fallen on the ground. On the slopes of the mountains we could be seen small Siberian cedars. They were no lumps. Valleys were filled with larch, dwarf birch, willow and alder scrub. Driving on the third day deciduous forest, we came upon traces of a bear-giant. Each track was equal to thirty-five centimeters and may contain the whole wrapped in my fur boots foot. Bear, apparently, was held here very recently, but the drivers have assured me that it took at least from this point than half a day. We went on the trail and steps in a hundred found a place where Bear reinforce squirrel - flying squirrel. It was clear that giant sprawled under a larch in the entire length of his powerful body and with the convenience of devouring its prey. A few scraps of wool explained to us exactly who hit him in the legs. After crossing the last mountain ridge, we saw, finally, the long-awaited Berezovka. Strong twisting, it flows in a northeasterly direction through the impassable taiga This - the third largest tributary of the Kolyma River, reaches about seven hundred kilometers in length. Width Berezovka, on average, equal to eighty meters. This typical Siberian river forest in the spring, during the snowmelt far beyond its banks. While still on the mountain, we have seen the bottom of the house. Because it was rising pipe bluish smoke. Fifteen minutes later, we finally reached our destination.

    Lamut

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Evens Ust-Yansk 1900. Yakutia

    In my tours around the neighborhood Berezovka I usually accompanied by a young Lamut, named Amuskan. He lived in a nearby parking lot and Lamutskiy supplied us game. Once I showed him the way to use my newly designed gun. The weapon seemed to him in some magical instrument, and it is a long time did not dare to touch him. Having laid one after the other five grouse, I brought him to an indescribable joy. He expressed his jubilation joyful leaps and loud shouts, startling the others, quietly sitting on the neighboring trees grouse. These birds are not afraid of rifle fire, but fly away, as soon as they hear a human voice, and all notice a person. Obviously, shooting the birds is not more terrible than usual for their thunder.

    Lamut - passionate hunter. One of the companions Amuskana brought us to sell fresh - the removed bearskin. It was fun listening to the narrator when he eloquently described to us his attack on the bear. He was keen on more and more. His eyes burned. Exposing the knife and bent over, he showed us how to stalking beast. All covered by the hunting passion, he looked like a predator. Well aware of the imperfection of their weapons, Lamut, going on a bear, usually armed with a spear. Its length comes to 1.60 meters. The weapon is forged from iron. North-Siberian natives willingly exchanged his Yakuts, since those long reputation for being good blacksmiths. At the junction of the handle in the iron belt is attached by means of a wooden cross. It prevents the spear rhyme enter deeply into the animal's body. Irritating cries lying in the lair of the beast, the hunter at the same time inciting dogs on him. When an angry bear rushes, finally, a hunter, agile Lamut nimbly eluded the blow. It is the bottom right in the heart plunges his spear and nails of the beast to the ground. For bear hunting with a spear is needed, of course, a great dexterity. Some prefer Lamuts knife every other weapon. But the fight does not always end well for the hunter. Lamut throughout the year one wanders with his semeyu and only in autumn joins compatriots to participate in the round-ups. In case of death of men, women and children remain confined to fishing forced the snare and trap birds and small animals. In severe winters or in poor areas of game they are unable to feed themselves. Lamut starved the deceased family eats in the end, his reindeer. Remote hundreds of kilometers from their she dies, and hunters often find it only after many years. Several times I went to a nearby parking lot Lamutskiy. There were three families who possessed, in total, fifty deer. It was autumn, and men came together for a joint hunt. During these migrations Lamut hunter lives in his leather tent urosse. Up it narrows funnel, thus giving an outlet for smoke. In such urossah sit on skins spread out on the ground. Hospitable hosts treated me smoked venison, aromatic flower tea and fresh reindeer milk. The only domestic animals of the north Siberian nomads are a dog and a deer. Everything here revolves around the deer, it built the whole existence of these people. deerskin provides them with clothes, milk and meat are eaten, of horns and bones do all kinds of utensils, and oil is used for lighting. But above all, the deer is Lamut riding and pack animals. Therefore, caring for the deer - the urgent task of his life. He is forced to gradually move with his flock from place to place in search of new, not yet depleted, pastures.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Deer. Yakutia

    In the summer, he leads the flock to the mountains, where deer is less plagued by mosquitoes. Here he is hunting wild reindeer fleeing these places from the same pesky mosquitoes. These nomads are culturally the same level of development as the New Stone Age man. They, however, are barter. For hides and fossil "ivory" Lamut received firearms, needles, beads and colorful walking on garment decoration, silk. Then some foods: tea, salt, sugar, flour and occasionally finally alcohol. Lamut, Chuvash, Yukaghir and Koryak belong to the so-called "old" families of the north-eastern Siberia. As the indigenous people of the area, they eat mostly reindeer riding. The rest of the Siberian natives use it as draft animals. This is explained by the difference in physique inhabit Siberia tribes. Old-Siberian natives have very slim addition. Tall man rarely exceeds their 1.60-1,65 meters and weighs 50-55 kilograms. Deer easily makes such a weight, but quickly tired by much denser Yakut. As for the Europeans, the severity of the body of the animal for almost daunting. Lamut very confidently sits in his saddle stirrups deprived. Deer controlled the reins. They fill up the neck and attached to the animal's horns. Beats sticks make it to accelerate its pace. The rider seems to be completely fused with the animal. This is understandable, as Lamut accustomed to this way of movement from an early age. In one of my visits Lamutskiy parking I managed to see a shaman. This was allowed because of me Amuskanu, assured his countrymen that I - a man completely safe and does not talk about it any priest or the head of the district. These primitive people considered Christians, and indeed, Orthodox priest, at the request of the authorities sometimes managed to baptize their children. But in their tents next to the data pop icons, always made peacefully hung shaman charms. What kind of help, says Lamut, you can expect from the priest and the Christian God during deer epidemics and mortality of dogs? Therefore, at every step there is already seen earlier place of worship Lamut. Sometimes they come across sacrificial stones, smeared with reindeer fat and sprinkled with blood. As for the meat of the sacrificed animal, it is usually prudent eaten by the donors.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    The Even iconic post. Yakutia

    Shamanism of the Siberian natives deified forces of nature. The native has populated its forests, hills, rivers and lakes are numerous good and bad spirits. Mediator between them and the person is in their naive belief, "the all-powerful shaman." When the disease relatives or pets native certainly refers to the shaman. Each "clan" has its own shaman. He roamed from place to place. Usually accompanied by a shaman of his own assistant. This is - a candidate for the future shamans. The graves of shaman inspire Lamut superstitious terror. They have strengthened their high poles bear skulls and skins of deer being killed on the grave. Our Lamuts also expected to itself the shaman. He came to them in milk-white deer. In appearance, clothing and arming the shaman does not differ from the rest of their compatriots. It was a typical representative of the indigenous natives of Siberia. Of medium height, slim, with straight black hair, short nose and prominent lips, he had just set, is not the type of Mongolian eyes. Their restless brilliance talked about easy excitability of this person. On belonging to the Mongolian race resembled a prominent cheekbones, and a wide brown parchment skin complexion. In his spare time he shamanism, like others, he was engaged in hunting. In the evening, began preparations for the spell. He was killed a deer, since the shaman predictions required the entrails and the blades of the animal. He subsequently as remuneration and road provisions, was the best part of this deer. The tent, which was supposed to enter the shaman, thoroughly cleaned. By the walls of its various attached figures of animals and humans. They were carved out of wood, "ivory", rhino horn and plant roots. Some of these figures were brightly painted. As the shaman's personal property, they were required to symbolize him during spells helper spirits. This evening he repeatedly sprinkled their deer blood and perfumed cedar resin. The latter were milled in a blended powder plants. At the end of the whole tent was filled with intoxicating scents. It contained nothing but men who were sitting on their heels along the walls urossy. Through the smoke hole already shone the stars. Only then began the spell. I sat on a bearskin far from the curtained entrance. In the middle of a bright fire smoldered, supports resinous larch roots. Silently and slowly slipped into the tent the shaman. He met a deep silence. Appearance "caster" has changed significantly. Leather clothing ended up flowing legs twisted straps. Chest was hung with strands of white and colorful glass beads. Between them hung a long iron bars and small brass bells. Besides his chest and back were decorated with teeth and claws of wild animals and birds. Headgear shaman looked like a hood, and consisted of skins removed from the muzzle of the polar wolf. round slices of a black fur were pasted at the location the eye. When the shaman danced and ears of the wolf's head flying through the air. In his left hand he held his magical and richly painted drum. In the right - stick coated fur. He hit it to the beat of the drum and, slowly gyrating, he dragged the dead, monotonous song. Quiet bells rang and knocked decorating clothes shaman teeth and claws. With a low bow, he walked around the fire several times. Help him from time to time he threw into the flames of some strongly smelling and burning blue flame powder. Bows and offering shaman belonged to the 'god of fire. " From his throat escaped a kind, that lingering, the intermittent sounds hysterical. They were accompanied by a smooth, rhythmic movements of his body and mixed with the hiss and crackle of flame in the fire. These sounds gradually went into a kind of melody and slow and fluid movements have turned into a real dance. What it was amazing, almost superhuman sounds! This kind of symphony exactly was woven of votes, overheard in the wild northern nature. My ear caught the unusual signs here sonorous harmony. It is alien to me harsh natural language excited nerves and seized all the listener being.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    The Even dance. Yakutia

    Shamanic songs, dances, and the deification of nature originate even from Central Asia, from where came the nomadic Siberian tribes. Here, in a continuous fight against the harsh nature, the singing and dance depicting a sad desert, a hostile person tundra and taiga. But they, however, have kept the bright colors and images of the former homeland and thus differ originality, strength and beauty. Soon, the singing turned into a barely audible murmur and whisper. The drum sounded fainter and fainter. Dancing slowly circled around a blazing fire. Then again, the song rose to the wild, broken, guttural moans. Transformed into a howl, it is reminiscent of a human cry, is excited by the creaking of trees hurricane, the wind whistling in the narrow mountain gorge, the roar of the storm in a snow-covered tundra. The dance ended abrupt jumps. The drum boomed, rattling charms, ringing bells. The shaman sang and danced continuously. Silhouettes of spectators huddled silently covered the reddish glow of the fire. Song deploy more and more new pictures of taiga. We hear the voice of various birds. Shaman imitated whistling blow falcon wings. To distribute, reminiscent bells, just delete songs whooper swan. Deaf voices ... voices amplified. The noise of the wings of all approaches. Exhausted shaman wipes his brow. His assistant pro¬dolzhaet beat the drum, as the sounds of this instrument must not be interrupted for a minute. Start new dances, new spells, new songs. Shaman is sent on his white deer in the distant taiga. He is looking for people there is a hostile monster. The melancholy song heard the sound of hooves and deer blows his horn on the trunks of old trees. We once again heed the leaves rustle and murmur of water. He imitates the cry of crows flying, mating call of the owl and crane in the swamp. We heard grumbling bear, a wolf, moose roar. From the mouth of the shaman calls for the fight. He strikes the drum loudly. In the battle to found, finally, a monster subordinated to help the shaman animals. He falls to the ground. In his mouth foam. In the view - madness. The body twitched convulsively. I woke up. The surrounding fire Lamuts covered excitement. At the end of the dance they cheered shaman staccato shouts, jumps and wild gestures. Whatever it was, but that primitive man was able to for a few hours to keep us near him in rapt attention.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    Taiga

    As I thought back to her. Covered with snow virgin forest did not publish a single sound. What was clear to these children of nature? Shaman preached faith in her strength. This man is thinking in concert with them and showed them to the phenomena that they felt on a daily basis. The priest spoke of the cruel god, always ready to punish them. All of these Christians, servants of the king, merchants and priests brought them dubious cultural benefits: scary, unknown before the illness, vodka, perpetual slavery debtors and the increasing taxes .. Show the first rays of the sun is dim. They lit up the wooded heights and gradually spread to prostrate before us the snowy wilderness. My horse whinnied joyfully welcoming his companions, who were grazing at the bottom of the river and with the help of hooves extracted from under the snow their meager livelihood.

    IN SIBERIA FOR MAMMOTH

    In the excavations. Yakutia

    At the excavation site

    The hut, which housed our expedition, was the location of the mammoth at a distance of about one kilometer. To him it led already well trodden path. She ran among the larches, covering the immediate vicinity of the hut and you can see ot her hillside. In one of the river bends a path suited to the site of the collapse of the coast. Gradually rising between the earth and crumbled masses protruding tree roots in the air, she reached up to half-covered cliff cracks. Long before we came to the mammoth, we began to reach the outskirts of the unpleasant smell. Finally, at the next turn in front of us popped highly protruding skull. We stood at the graves of the age-old diluvial giant. The trunk and limbs were still in the ground, with which the corpse tumbled out of a huge crack, lying above the ice blocks. The vertical wall of boulders pointed to the spot where the collapse occurred. Silently we stood in front of a dead witness for a long time last glacial epoch. Almost intact for millennia mammoth lay in his icy tomb. We have long been unable to move away from this legendary creature, a kind of superstitious fear which filled the primitive inhabitants of the tundra and taiga. the ambient air temperature falls rapidly. At night it fell to - 12 ° Celsius. It was necessary to take into account the rapid onset of cold weather. Singling out of blocks of solid ice severely frozen soft parts of the animal, we could damage the skeleton of a mammoth, and his long hair. It was decided to start immediately the construction of the corpse of a mammoth wooden frame and implement the blockhouse furnaces. Thus we would be able to melt the ice and around the remains of the corpse thaw fossil giant, and it would give us the opportunity to quietly take over the excavation of a mammoth skeleton and its distribution on the easy-to-transport parts.

    While organized framework, I had enough time to survey the cliff, in the middle of which was our godsend. During these trips I was usually accompanied by the Cossack Yavlovsky Innocent, who reported finding a corpse in the Berezovka mammoth. In mid-August 1900 near Berezovka hunted several Lamut. One of them, Simon Tarabykin later told who was in Kolyma Cossacks following. He was walking with his dog on the trail of a moose. Attracted by the smell, the dog led him to sticking out of the ground corpse of a mammoth. The head was still completely intact, "nose" in length was equal to the size of year-old deer. Int was also one of the tusks. Frightened unexpected findings Tarabykin not even dare to touch it and immediately went back to his urosse. There were together with their families and two hunters Lamut. Tarabykin told them that he saw on the Berezovka. the next morning they were three of us went to the corpse of a monster and the joint efforts of pulled one of the tusks of the head of a mammoth. the head and partly open back has been damaged by wolves. they snatched meat with the skin and sometimes bone. Everywhere around were visible traces of gray robbers. This has led Lamut conclude that the head and back of a mammoth for a long time are without cover. The corpse must be in the spring he fell from the top edge of the river cliff. at the end of August, all three Lamut were in Kolyma and in return they have brought tusk received in Yavlovskogo various products. So Cossack heard about this discovery. Yavlovsky knew that the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences awards the persons it indicates the location of the fossil corpses. He immediately arranged with Lamut on a trip to Berezovka and promised them a reward in the case of really well-preserved corpse, and Lamuts handed him his right to discovery. In early November Yavlovsky own eyes convinced of the veracity of the story Lamut. As material evidence they had been cut off a piece of mammoth skin. Predators had, unfortunately, to make further damage. Fearing the complete destruction of the corpse, Yavlovsky somehow covered it with stones and planks. Back in Kolyma, the district chief of the Cossack showed tusk and cut them part of the skin. Examine the corpse with my own eyes, head of the district sent a special messenger to Yakutsk, seized along with a letter and "evidence." The governor sent both to the Academy of Sciences, who decided to equip a special expedition to Berezovka. Looking at the body on the opposite, right, the coast, you could see that the body is approximately in the middle of the place crash. It is thirty-five meters towered above the river. All captured by the collapse of the space in a semicircle stretched to one and three-quarters of kilometers up and downstream. The banks are covered with dense willows and olshnyakom between thickets which zmeyatsya water Berezovka. Meandering river again coming to a place of towering over the collapse of the ridge. It reaches one hundred and fifty meters high, and is covered with a fairly dense larch forest. Spangled space debris went to the river at an angle to 35 °. Its total height barely reached fifty-five meters. Upstairs, under the moss-covered layer of humus, which was for two more - three-meter clay litter, come to the surface almost sheer wall of ice falling. They turned to the east and throughout the summer, warmed by the sun. Obtained in this water, together with the running of the taiga rain and snow waters, causing avalanches of earth masses.

    Ice chunks are components of the far-stretching formation diluvial ice. It goes through the entire area of ​​collapse and quite often comes to the surface vertically. These ice cliffs are between five and eight meters in height. They richly indented cracks, usually covered with earth and rubble. This is the ice-formation, and rested with his body surrounded a mammoth underground. Having dealt with the excavations and remove all parts of the animal, we dug a rectangular hole two meters deep. Already at a depth of 1.90 meters could be seen "indigenous" brownish ice. In the same color and had ice cliffs, come to the surface to five meters above the place where we made excavations. For further study we are interested in the phenomenon we were laid two holes are the same. One - at the upper edge of the ice cliff, the other - five meters above the water level in the river. All three holes were on the same line and at a depth of about two meters show us the root of the specified color ice. This fact proved that coming from the taiga to the shore Berezovka ice formation, perhaps extending even under her bed, and it was under the same angle of incidence as the steep bank. Ice-facing surface of the rocks, and the one which we have found at the bottom of all three holes, had, as we have said, brownish color and was heavily laced with elongated air bubbles. The deeper we dig, the lighter it became. Then the ice became completely transparent and air bubbles are fewer in number and rounder. However, being exposed over time to air, and the transparent ice acquired a brownish color overlying layers. It must be concluded that this formation is one of the residues often found in Arctic Siberia dilyuvial¬nogo ice. Such formations frequently conclude preserved animal carcasses talus.

    The victim in 1903. Toll geologist examined in the nineties of the last century, most of the places were ever found the bodies of mammoths. He came to the conclusion that the indigenous Siberian ice is ice diluvial origin. At one time, they are widely stretched over the surface of the earth. Gradually coated with layers of soil, they have hitherto been preserved in the polar region in the form of more or less extensive layers. Even before my arrival at the Hertz Beryozovka ordered to dig surrounded mammoth mound of earth. At the same time it was released two front and two rear legs. They were placed horizontally under the body and are rested on the whole body. When looking at the corpse turned impression that mammoth of a sudden got into some crack or pothole hidden in ice thickness. Covered by plants and humus formation, in all probability, he served as a pasture. Fallen ponderous animal must have scrambled to get out of his helpless situation. On these attempts to bend the rules and said elongated front left front leg. But the strength of this he did not have. Our further work showed that the fall in depth has caused some heavy mammoth bone fractures. Besides animal falls asleep crumbling ground with him, was soon suffocated. Death, obviously, come quickly, as in the mouth on the tongue, and the well-preserved between molars we found had not chewed food. It consisted of a variety of deciduous plants and grasses. Some of them have already had the seeds. From there we came to the conclusion that the mammoth suffered a sudden death in the fall.

    The age-old tomb

    Before you log on to lay the roof of the mammoth, it was necessary to remove high sticking giant skull. He demanded too high roof, and it would be difficult for a thorough warming and thawing the corpse. To this end, I cut only still-preserved soft parts on it. They were connecting the skull and jaws muscular bands. After that, we combined efforts raised the heavy skull. We saw the remains of the animal write. They openly lying on the molars of the left half of the mandible. These balances were not yet fully chew. A small part of them has been found and a very well-preserved language. Stuck between molars food had clear impressions of dental records. From partially preserved stomach we later learned about thirty pounds of food balances. They all consisted of cereals and higher flowering plants. Many of them had fruit. However, we absolutely do not find here gymnosperms residues. Hence it was possible to infer that the conifers were not used in the mammoth food. Subsequently, the Botanical Museum of the Academy of Sciences was able to identify some of these we found in the mouth and stomach of the mammoth plant. Careful research led to some very interesting conclusions. It turned out that the mammoth food consisted of the same plant, and that currently grow in the vicinity of Berezovka. These modern plants have been collected by us and zagerbarizirovany, and then transferred to the museum as a material for comparison. Thus, it was firmly established that the mammoth ate and still growing in the field of its former habitat herbs. But we have still to assume that in addition to occur during the talus climate deterioration went and worsening living conditions of the largest representatives of the then fauna. The changing climatic conditions and associated wilting flora drove them to Central Siberia. There, as well as in Central Europe, these giants were gradually destroyed by man.

    Due to ever-frozen ground trapped in her mammoth corpses remained intact for thousands of years. Taking into account the duration of the diluvial period and, therefore, a huge total number of living in this period of mammoths, we have to think that we are aware of only a very few location of their remains. The greater part of them, in all probability passes for science totally unnoticed. Removing the skull, we covered the roof of the cabin and flooded the furnace. Vertically posed perfectly logs burned in two furnaces of Yakut with semicircular fireplaces. We had to hastily make even the screens to protect the body against direct fire. The three little window of the building blocks of ice were inserted. Login elk skin was covered. After removing from the back of the last remnants of it covered the ground, we saw the ribs and thoracic vertebrae. Carnivorous animals have damaged ribs and pulled out from the spinal column several thoracic vertebrae. We have separated these parts, then cut to the right side of the belly already thawed skin. This was done in order to accelerate access to the heat completely frozen the internal parts of the corpse. It is shown in black-gray, sometimes dark brown shell stomach. She was completely rotten and torn by predators. Flowing fluid from the fractures. The insides - heart, lungs and liver - were apparently clean eaten the same robbers. From head leaving only the right cheek to the lower half of the century and covered with blackish hair stiff lower lip. Meanwhile, it has been removed and enough time, softer skin with the left side of the belly. Even before that, we have released a shovel. In this area, the beasts did not leave us a single piece - no skin, no meat. Well-preserved in the humerus and femur, as well as on the pelvis, meat permeated the thick layers of fat. In this frozen meat it had a "fresh and appetizing appearance ', resembling a glance horse meat or beef. Only fibers of his were, of course, pogrubee. Thawed, it was limp and gray. Around spread disgusting smell of ammonia. He infiltrated our tools, work clothes, finally, ourselves. No matter how appetizing was the mammoth meat, none of us dared to try this rare dishes. His only connoisseur was owned Yavlovskomu Yakutian Laika, plenty sated that "Dichin". The competitors had to keep her around our hut jays and crows. One day I noticed that insolent jay even jumped on the head of a busy edoyu dog. Abundant on the body fat had a whitish-gray color. The deeper layers of it struck us with its spongy. The thickness of the skin of a mammoth was equal to two centimeters. The underlying fat layer is reached it in some parts of the body before the full nine centimeters. He served as an animal good protection from the cold. Up to half a meter long bristly hair already badly kept on the skin. Just taken out of the land they were reddish-brown color, Having dried well, it took much lighter shade. Apart from them the skin was still short, yellowish soft wool.

    The surrounding land was a corpse in some places entirely covered by individual and tangled hair tangles. Hang down on either side of the corpse still had a flap of skin on itself in some the best-protected places remnants of hair. The best preserved skin of the lower trunk. This is due to the fact that all of it was under the protection of the earth. But here, the scalp has already managed to break away from the body. Huge amounts of bristles and short soft fur were collected by us only after the removal of the corpse. Many works cost us rassekanie still frozen right front leg between the scapula and the humerus. Cut up to the muscles of the humerus bone, I found it was in the middle of the fracture. Around the fracture site, in muscle, ligament and fat I strong bleeding was found. This fracture, as well as contact mounted within a double fracture of the pelvis certainly occurred during the fall of the animal. And in the second case, too, there has been a strong bleeding. We would be very happy to have taken away with him all the leg completely, but our assistants protested. They stated that the severity of its prohibitively high for a reindeer harnessing. Deystvi¬telno, when dismantling a portion of the mammoth had to reckon with these circumstances. In order not to prejudice further anatomical research, I have divided the two front legs of the elbow joint. Thanks to this operation, their weight decreased so that it became possible to load them into a pair of reindeer-drawn sleigh. Each leg is required, of course, individual sled. Aside from bad to keep the hair, the two front legs were up to the sole in excellent condition. The left was not only bent in the elbow joint, but in the wrist. We carefully bandaged both limbs to keep them still in its wool. Subsequently, we brought out the soft parts of the animal at the Academy were prepared preparations ligaments, nerves and muscles. Blood vessels even succumbed injection. This is best shown in excellent condition which arrived in our distant mammoth Petersburg! The two front legs, as well as all other separated us of the mammoth, were sewn into the bull and horse skins, and again exposed to frost. This is the simplest way to store pieces of mammoth required us we were only obliged to harsh Siberian cold. Meanwhile, our caring Petersburg colleague broke a lot of their heads, inventing ways of preservation of the corpse. By order of the Commission appointed by the Academy we are dragged along on Beryozovka set, as it is now revealed to us completely unnecessary substances. Here, in the tundra and taiga, we could within the next five months to be totally calm about the safety of our treasures. It was important just to arrive in St. Petersburg before the spring thaw. Clearing the left front leg on the ground clinging to her, I noticed that it is an abnormal amount of dressing the tips of the fingers of hooves. As a general rule they have five proboscidians. As for our mammoth, I'm on both its front legs found only four horn-shaped and also underdeveloped thickening. Later research has led to stunning results.

    The Academy had been carefully considered by both legs of our mammoth, and seven pieces of the front and hind legs first and found the remnants of these animals. It was found that a Siberian mammoth has only four fingers. Consequently, his foot is compared to other elephants kicking the most specialized. Excavation of our approaching end. Most of the corpses, already packaged and frozen again, lying in a hut is for our tent. Its guarded sensitive dog Yavlovskogo. Between the stomach and partially preserved the diaphragm we found a large amount of coagulated blood. It has been collected in the bag, and together with the rest of our cargo delivered to St. Petersburg. In the frozen state that blood was like a dry and coarse sand. Easily soluble in water, the dark brown beads were stained in its mutnokrasny color. Many Russian and German experts under its then-Wörgl at serological test Ulenguta method. This way they were able to establish a kinship with his mammoth now living relative - the Indian elephant. Three days before the end of the work we have done two important operations. All of the severity of the corpse rested on horizontally elongated hind legs. After harvesting the greater part of the body they lay before us like two huge pillars. We are especially careful they unearthed since sought to avoid damaging the still preserved them wool. In the morning I separated from Tepa left, and in the afternoon right hind leg. Both of them were cut us in knee joints. The length of the sole to the knee reached 1.24 meters, and the weight of each of them was equal to one hundred and sixty kilograms. thigh length was 1.30 meters. Meanwhile, Berezovsky Mammoth was only average value representative of this kind! Status of the soft parts of both hind legs turned out magnificent. We have put part of his left leg in a specially laid up us a high glass jar with alcohol. Cutting thickness exceeds two fingers skin, huge chunks of meat, I sought the help of a nondescript, but irreplaceable in similar cases Yakut knife. Nimble Yakuts forge them out by themselves mined ore. Firmly seated in its handle, these knives have a hardness at large at the same time amazing flexibility. Blade them almost never breaks. In addition, they are extremely sharp. Among dissecting tool brought me was, however, a large number of knives. All of them died one after the other at the first attempt to cut open the corpse, and a primitive knife Yakut origin served us until the end of the expedition. Broken in two places at the pelvis was freed from the surrounding meat. We really did not want to cut to cover a portion of the belly and the seat a large piece of skin. It was decided to take him to St. Petersburg as a whole. This part of the skin weighed one hundred and fifty kilograms. We gently raised her. On the underside of the raised contact skin were preserved veli¬kolepno tail, anus and genital organ of a mammoth. Another news for science was tridtsatipyatisantimetrovy tail. The perfect surprise turned out to be found by us anal valve. He looked like a cover and protected from the cold anus. The end of the tail from the lower side was covered with a thick and long hair bristly. Most of these thick hair is achieved in half a millimeter in diameter roots. Their length is equal to thirty-five centimeters. Painting was dark brown. Tenth day of October, our work has been finished. The last time we visited our friends - Lamuts. We sadly parted with these naive, honest sons of the virgin forest. Their immediacy gives us great joy. At that moment, when they disappeared from our eyes in the snow-covered larch forest, my heart ached as if I had lost a good and loyal companions. We left Beryozovka October 15, 1901. The whole is divided into parts of the mammoth have been loaded on ten hastily crafted sleds. The total weight of the load was equal to approximately one thousand kilograms. To drive separates us from Kolymsk distance, we used horses. In Kolyma horses were replaced by deer. The rate of our progress considerably accelerated. The enormous difficulty of waiting for us in the mountains Tas-hayak-minute. and in Verkhoyansk mountains, where we had to navigate icy, slippery as glass mountain valleys. Starting from Aldan, we again loaded on a mammoth drawn sleigh horses. In Irkutsk we expect hitched to the nearest postal train car fridge. After thirteen days' journey by train, we arrived in St. Petersburg February 18, 1902. A few months later a mammoth skeleton was already mounted and pomeshen in one of the halls of Zoological Museum of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Next to him, a huge glass cupboard, and is partly reconstructed the animal's skin. Along with canned alcohol in the soft parts of the mammoth - the most brilliant exhibits rich residues diluvial mammals museum.

    Source:  yakutskhistory.net

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