Diamonds were formed more than 300 million. Years ago. Kimberlite magma formed at a depth of 20-25 km. Magma gradually rose along faults in the earth's crust, and when the upper layers could no longer contain the pressure of the rock, there is an explosion. The first such handset found in South Africa in Kimberley - from there came the name. In the mid 50-ies of the richest indigenous diamond deposits were discovered in Yakutia, where about 1,500 kimberlite pipes have been discovered to date. The development of deposits of Yakutia is a Russian company "ALROSA", which produces 99% of the diamonds in the Russian Federation and more than a quarter of the world.
City of Peace - diamond "capital" of Russia, located in Yakutia (Sakha) in 1200 km. from Yakutsk.
Open geologists summer of 1955 diamond pipe "Mir" gave the name of the workers' village, grew up in the taiga and became a city in 3.5 years.
The city's population is about 35 thousand people. About 80% of the population works in the enterprises associated with the group "Alrosa" company.
Lenin Square - the city center.
Ensuring Peace food and consumer goods takes place in the following ways: aviation, shipping supplies (at that time, until Lena opened navigation) and "winter roads".
Aircraft IL-76TD "ALROSA" airlines
The Peace is the headquarters of Russia's largest diamond mining company "ALROSA".
Company history began with trust "Yakutalmaz" formed for the development of indigenous Yakutia diamond deposits in the early 1950s.
The main deposits "Yakutalmaz" became kimberlite pipe "Mir", opened June 13, 1955.
Then geologists sent to Moscow encrypted telegram "to smoke the pipe of peace. Tobacco is excellent. "
The quarry is located in the immediate vicinity of the Peace.
From 1957 to 2001, of the deposit was mined diamonds at $ 17 billion. US exported about 350 million m3 of rock.
Over the years, the quarry has expanded so that the dump trucks had to drive through the spiral road 8 km. from the bottom to the surface.
The quarry has a depth of 525 m and a diameter of 1.2 km, is one of the largest in the world: the height it could enter the Ostankino TV tower.
Quarry was mothballed in June 2001, and in 2009 production of diamond ore is conducted by underground mining at the mine "Mir".
The tube location Mir zone passes aquifer. Now the water flows into the quarry and thus represents a threat to the open pit mine is under. Water must be continuously pumped and sent to the faults that have been found by geologists in the earth's crust.
The volume of diamond production at the mine in 2013 amounted to more than 2 million. Carat.
Resources (including reserves) - more than 40 million tons of ore..
The mine employs about 760 people.
The company operates seven days a week. Mine Operation - three shifts, the change lasts 7 hours.
Mine surveying, determining the direction of penetration on the ore body.
9 tunneling machines for tunneling involved in the mine (Sandvik MR 620 and MR360)
Harvester is a machine with an executive body in the form of arrows with the milling crown, which is fitted with cutting tools - teeth.
Such a miner Sandvik MR360 72 teeth of hardened metal.
Since the teeth are subject to wear, they are inspected every shift and replaced by new ones if necessary.
For delivery of ore from the combine to the ore passes are 8 Scooptrams (VSD).
Backbone Konverternaya tape length of 1,200 meters from the kimberlite pipe to Skip the ore pass.
The average diamond content of greater than 3 carats per tonne.
From this point to the bottom of the quarry about 20 meters.
To prevent flooding of underground mine between the bottom of the quarry and mine workings by a pillar 20 meters thick.
At the bottom of the quarry also laid a waterproof layer that prevents the penetration of water into the mine.
The mine also organized system of water collection: first, groundwater is collected in special lagoons, then fed to the mark -310 meters from the pumps pumped to the surface.
Total mine are 10 pumps capacity from 180 to 400 cubic meters per hour.
Installation of the main tape
This underground work in the other tube - "International" ( "Inter").
It is located 16 km from Mirny. Open-pit diamond mining started here in 1971, and by 1980, when the mine reached the level of 284 m, it has been preserved. It is with the "Inter" started mining diamonds in Yakutia underground way.
"International" - the richest companies kimberlite pipe diamond content in the ore - more than 8 carats per tonne.
In addition, the "Inter" diamonds are of high quality and valued in the world market.
Shaft depth - 1065 meters. Tube explored up to 1220 meters.
The length of all developments is more than 40 km.
Combine beats ore working body (roller cutter), installed on his incisors.
alley is loaded in the loading and delivering cars that transported the ore to ore passes (mining, for transporting ore from the working area to located below the transport level), then the trolley transported it to the major ore pass, through which it is served in the skip shaft and provided on surface.
During the day, on "Inter" produced 1500 tons of ore. The volume of diamond production in 2013 amounted to more than 4.3 million. Carat.
On average, one ton of rock contains 8.53 carats of diamonds.
Since the content of diamonds per tonne of ore mined "Inter" fall 2 tons of ore with "Peace", 4 tons with "Ayhan" or 8 tons "Udachninsky".
Work at the mine conducted day and night seven days a week. Only two holidays - New Year's Day and Miner.
Kimberlite pipe "Nyurbinskaya"
Nyurbinsk mining and processing was created in March 2000 for the development of deposits in the ore field Nakyn Nyurbinsky ulus of the Republic Sakha (Yakutia) - kimberlite pipes "Nyurbinskaya" and "Botuobinskaya" as well as the surrounding placers. Production is carried out in an open and placer way.
In Nyurbinsky GOK for the first time in the history of the association "Yakutalmaz" and the company "Alrosa" shift method is used - with the involvement of workers living in Mirny (. 320 km), in Nyurba (206 km.) And in the village Verkhnevilyuisk (235 km.)
As of July 1, 2013, the depth of the quarry "Nyurbinsk" is 255 meters.
Open pit mine will be practiced up to 450 meters (to the level of -200 meters above sea level). There is potential for work to the level of -320 meters.
For transportation of ore and waste rock dump used heavy-duty - from 40 to 136 tons.
company "Caterpillar" carrying capacity of 88 tons in career operated dump CAT-777D.
Nyurbinsk Mining has the highest rate of growth of natural diamond mining in "ALROSA".
The volume of diamond production in 2013 was 6.5 million. Carat.
The average diamond content in the ore - 4.25 carats per tonne.
In the back of the truck around 300-400 carats.
With a career or mine dump trucks ore sent to the factory where it is extracted from minerals themselves.
Enrichment Mirny Diamond Mining is conducted in a factory №3, which in the 70s of the last century has been the flagship of the country's diamond industry.
Power processing complex - 1.415 million of ore per year.
Housing and coarse crushing jaw crusher.
It takes place by friction grinding mobile "cheeks" of the fixed. For a day pass through the crusher 6000 tons of raw materials.
Housing secondary crushing
Intended for wet separation of solid material on sands (precipitate particle size up to 50 mm), and an outlet, comprising fine particulate matter.
Mill wet autogenous
The diameter of the mill - 7 meters
Stones sieved where they are divided into groups according to size.
Melkopererabotannuyu breed sent to spiral classifiers (spiral separator), where all the raw materials separated depending on its density.
On the external side enters the heavy fraction, and with the internal - light.
Fine material together with the addition of water in the reactants fed pnevmoflotatsionnuyu machine where smaller classes crystals adhere to the foam bubbles and directed to finishing. On pnevmoflotatsionnoy machine removed the smallest diamonds - from 2 mm or less.
This film machine, which is created using reagent layer to which fine diamond crystals adhere.
of X-ray separator
This separator is used diamond property glow in X-rays. The material moving along the tray, is irradiated with X-rays. Once in the exposure zone, diamond begins to shine. Following the outbreak of a special device captures the glow and sends a signal to shut-off device.
The center console processing plant management.
In the factory there is final finishing shop, where clean diamonds, scatter, producing the manual selection, sorted and packaged.
Diamond Sorting Center
All obtained at the Company's fields in Yakutia diamonds are sent to the sorting center at Mirny. There is a division of diamonds by size classes, conducted the initial assessment of raw material from different fields and monitoring for the planning of mining and processing.
In nature there are no ideal crystals, or two identical diamonds, so their classification involves sorting.
16 x 10 sizes form x 5 x 10 qualities of colors = 8000 positions.
Vibrating sieve roar. His task - to divide the small diamonds into size classes. For this purpose, 4-8 sieves.
For every unit of about 1500 laid stones.
Those that more, engaged Weighing machines. The largest diamond sorting people.
The shape, quality and color of the crystal is determined by the appraisers using magnifiers and microscopes.
A specialist in the hour are dozens of diamonds, and if small - the account goes on hundreds.
Each stone look three times.
Manual weighing diamonds
diamond weight is determined in carats. The name "carat" comes from the name of the seed of the carob carats.
In ancient times it served as a seed carat unit of measurement of mass and volume of precious stones.
1 carat - 0.2 g (200 mg)
Stones weighing more than 50 carats are a few times a month.
The world's largest diamond, "Cullinan" weighs 621 grams and costs about 200 billion rubles.
The largest diamond among Yakut - «XXII Congress of the CPSU", weighs 342 carats (over 68 grams).
In 2013, the companies of the group "ALROSA" produced more than 37 million. Carat diamond.
Of these, 40% are for industrial purposes and 60% - on the jewelry.
After selection of the stones hit the cutting plant. There are diamonds are diamonds.
Loss at a facet are from 30 to 70% by weight of the diamond.
As of 2013 stocks "ALROSA" group amounted to 608 million. Carat and probable reserves amount to about one third of world.
Thus, the company has provided the mineral resource base in the 30 years ahead.
Thank you very much, "Alrosa" company for the organization of shooting!
Author: Slava Stepanov
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